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Related to GEO: Lead of IGCP 565 Project "Developing the Global Geodetic Observing System into a Monitoring System for the Global Water Cycle" Water Resources:

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Presentation on theme: "Related to GEO: Lead of IGCP 565 Project "Developing the Global Geodetic Observing System into a Monitoring System for the Global Water Cycle" Water Resources:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Related to GEO: Lead of IGCP 565 Project "Developing the Global Geodetic Observing System into a Monitoring System for the Global Water Cycle" Water Resources: New Monitoring Technologies and Data Sets Hans-Peter Plag University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA In GEO: Co-Chair, Coastal Zone Community of Practice Co-Chair, Geohazards Community of Practice Member, User Interface Committee (IEEE) Member, Science and Technology Committee (IEEE) Task Lead and Point of Contact for ST Lead Editor of "Global Geodetic Observing System: Meeting the Requirements of a Global Society on a Changing Planet in 2020" (GGOS2020) as deliverable of Task AR

2 Questions considered in this presentation: - What are the new monitoring technologies? - Who is operating, analysing, and interpreting the observations? - What can be derived with respect to water cycle and water resources? - What is available for users others than the providers? - What are the critical issues that need to be addressed to get the full benefits? Water Resources: New Monitoring Technologies and Data Sets

3 New technologies producing data sets: - Gravity: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE); Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) - Surface displacements: GPS/GNSS; InSAR - Earth rotation (not new, but related to gravity) - Ice sheets, sea surface, land surface water: Satellite/Laser altimetry New Monitoring Technologies Emerging new technologies: - Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reflectometry (both with reflectometers in space and on ground) - Soil moisture, snow height: GNSS - Soil moisture: Soil Moisture Ocean Satellite (SMOS) - Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) - Combination of superconducting gravimeter and Lysimeter -... (New) technologies producing (few) local hydrology data sets: - gravity surveys (groundwater exploration) - repeated in situ gravity surveys (ground water variations) - superconducting gravimeters (time variability of water column)

4 Groups: - GRACE Science Team (mainly GRACE, research oriented) - Hydrological applications of GRACE (mainly GRACE, research oriented) - IGCP 565 Project (all geodetic observations, focus on products for end users, applications in developing countries) - GRACE Hydrology Product Working Group (GRACE, product oriented) The Communities Sequence of science workshops: - GRACE Science Team: annual workshops - GRACE Hydrology: two workshops, last one in IGCP 565 Project: five annual workshops, (2011 and 2012 workshops in Africa; focus on assimilation in hydrologic models and products for regional water management). - GRACE Hydrology Product Working Group: Meetings in 2010

5 The 'three pillars of geodesy': Earth's Shape (Geokinematics) Earth's Gravity Field Earth Rotation Observed and Derived Variables Output: Reference Frame Observations of the Shape, Gravitational Field and Rotation of the Earth

6 Output: Reference Frame Observations of the Shape, Gravitational Field and Rotation of the Earth The 'three pillars of geodesy': Earth's Shape (Geokinematics) Earth's Gravity Field Earth Rotation (Fourth pillar: - remote sensing of the atmosphere ) Observed and Derived Variables

7 Output: Reference Frame Observations of the Shape, Gravitational Field and Rotation of the Earth The 'three pillars of geodesy': Earth's Shape (Geokinematics) Earth's Gravity Field Earth Rotation (Fourth pillar: - remote sensing of the atmosphere ) Observed and Derived Variables

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9 Ilk et al., 2005 Observed and Derived Variables

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11 Satellite Gravity Missions (GRACE) Observed and Derived Variables

12 Variations in the Arctic Ocean circulation are associated with clockwise and counterclockwise shifts in the front between salty Atlantic-derived and less salty Pacific-derived upper ocean waters. Orientation of the front is climatically important because it impacts sea ice transport. GRACE Reveals Changes in Arctic Ocean Circulation Patterns Morrison et al., GRL,2007

13 GRACE Quantifies Massive Depletion of Groundwater in NW India The water table is declining at an average rate of 33 cm/yr During the study period, , 109 km 3 of groundwater was lost from the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, and Haryana; triple the capacity of Lake Mead GRACE is unique among Earth observing missions in its ability to monitor variations in all water stored on land, down to the deepest aquifers. Trends in groundwater storage during , with increases in blue and decreases in red. The study region is outlined. Time series of total water from GRACE, simulated soil water, and estimated groundwater, as equivalent layers of water (cm) averaged over the region. The mean rate of groundwater depletion is 4 cm/yr. Inset: Seasonal cycle. Rodell, Velicogna, and Famiglietti, Nature, 2009

14 Greenland: - mass loss increased from 137 Gt/yr in 2002–2003 to 286 Gt/yr in 2007– acceleration of -30 ± 11 Gt/yr 2 in 2002–2009. Antarctica: - mass loss increased from 104 Gt/yr in 2002–2006 to 246 Gt/yr in 2006– acceleration of -26 ± 14 Gt/yr 2 in 2002–2009. GRACE Detects Accelerated Ice Mass Loss in Greenland and Antarctica Velicogna, GRL,2009 During the period of April 2002 to February 2009 the mass loss of the polar ice sheets was not constant but increased with time, implying that the ice sheets contribution to sea level rise was increasing. AntarcticaGreenland

15 Becker et al., 2009 Hydrology: Seasonal and interannual changes in land-water storage

16 JPL MASCON, secular trends , Watkins, 2008 Hydrology: Secular trends in Land Water storage

17 GRACE Science Team Meeting, November 2010, Potsdam, Germany

18 GRACE Hydrology Products Versus University of Washington Hydrology Data Rodell et al., 2010

19 Land Surface Water Storage Examples from Calmant et al., Data sets in research mode; - Uncertainties from one to several decimeters; - Reprocessing required; - It is expected that more comprehensive data sets become available in the near future

20 GPS-Determined Surface Displacements P349: Close to Lake Shasta, California; affected by lake loading P060: Not affected by lake loading; but effects of subsurface loading

21 InSAR-Determined Surface Displacements Subsidence Four subsidence bowls Aquifer system response strongly controlled by faults Faults are subsidence barriers Subsidence rate is decreasing Amelung et al., 1999

22 JPL MASCON, secular trends , Watkins, 2008 Infrastructure Issues GPS Superconducting Gravimeters (GGP)

23 Geodetic Products for Hydrology: - Hydrogeodesy products mostly limited to GRACE; - Several data centers providing a number of products; - Products not ready-to-use; - Reliable GRACE hydrology products are (still not available and) needed; - Comparison of different GRACE products and hydrology data shows no clear-winner; different products seem to perform better in different regions; - Large data archives of GPS time series are emerging (UNR has more than 8,000 stations), although not specifically for hydrology ; - InSAR increasingly available, although no global repository for hydrology; - Expected: land surface water from satellite altimetry Available Products

24 Main results, conclusions: - GRACE has contributed tremendously to our knowledge about water cycle mass redistributions from global down to 300 km spacial scales and sub-monthly temporal scales; - GRACE, GPS and Earth rotation show significant discrepancies; - GRACE (mostly) agrees with land water storage model predictions; - GRACE data products show differences, depending on the group producing them; - GRACE data products are difficult to understand and apply in disciplines outside of geodesy, particularly hydrology; - Considerable need for capacity building outside expert co mmunities. Results and Critical Issues

25 Issues that need to be addressed to further develop hydrogeodesy: - Multi-sensor hydrogeodetic observations (GRACE, GPS - co-located with meteorological stations, in situ gravimetry) and model assimilation to increase spatial and temporal resolution; - Product assessments; - Cross-validation (particularly seasonal variations and secular trends) both between geodetic techniques and other sensors; - Error analysis; - Infrastructure gaps (GPS, in situ gravimetry); - Easy-to-use, community vetted products; - User guides and capacity building. Results and Critical Issues

26 Recommendations from IGCP 565 Workshop (2010): - Development of integrated modeling framework (tectonics and hydrology) for gravity, surface displacements, rotation; - hydrogeodetic data portal; - capacity building; - Decision support interface between science and applications; - Demonstration pilot projects (Central Valley, California; Nile River Delta) reach out to regional water management. Recommendation of IGCP 565 Workshop 2009 (Road Map): - Continuity of satellite gravity missions is crucial (GRACE Follow-on; improved missions; need confirmed by NRC 2010 Report on geodetic infrastructure); - hourly atmospheric data to reduce atmospheric aliasing.

27 What could be done for IPCC AR5? - Write a review article on hydrogeodesy. Critical Issues


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