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Face-Work in Chat Reference Encounters Presented by Marie L. Radford and Lynn Silipigni Connaway Library Research Round Table June 24, 2006 ALA, New Orleans,

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Presentation on theme: "Face-Work in Chat Reference Encounters Presented by Marie L. Radford and Lynn Silipigni Connaway Library Research Round Table June 24, 2006 ALA, New Orleans,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Face-Work in Chat Reference Encounters Presented by Marie L. Radford and Lynn Silipigni Connaway Library Research Round Table June 24, 2006 ALA, New Orleans, Louisiana

2 Presenters Marie L. Radford, Ph.D. –Associate Professor, –Rutgers University, SCILS – –www.scils.rutgers.edu/~mradfordwww.scils.rutgers.edu/ Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. –Consulting Research Scientist – –www.oclc.org/research/staff/connaway.htmwww.oclc.org/research/staff/connaway.htm Grant Website:

3 Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives $1,103,572 project funded by: –Institute of Museum and Library Services $684,996 grant –Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and OCLC Online Computer Library Center $405,076 in kind contributions

4 Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives Project duration 10/1/2005-9/30/2007 Four phases: I.Focus group interviews* II.Analysis of 1,000+ QuestionPoint transcripts III.600 online surveys* IV.300 telephone interviews* *Interviews & surveys with VRS users, non-users, & librarians

5 Phase I: Focus Groups 7 so far –4 with non-users –2 with VRS librarians –1 with VRS users 3 more to come –3 more with VRS users

6 Phase II: 24/7 Transcript Analysis Generated random sample –July 7, 2004 through June 27, 2005 –263,673 sessions –25 transcripts/month = 300 total 256 usable transcripts –Excluded system tests & technical problems 226 of these analyzed for todays presentation

7 Classification Methodology Qualitative Analysis –Development/refinement of category scheme –Careful reading/analysis –Identification of patterns –Theoretical framework from Erving Goffman (1967)

8 Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior (1967) Erving Goffman Essay: On Face-Work: An analysis of Ritual Elements in Social Interaction

9 Face-Work Much of the activity occurring during an encounter can be understood as an effort on everyones part to get through the occasion and all the unanticipated and unintentional events that can cast participants in an undesirable light, without disrupting the relationships of the participants (Goffman, 1967, p. 41)

10 Face Defined Positive social value person claims Self-image in terms of approved social attributes

11 Establishing Face Face is located in flow of events –Feelings about face reinforced by encounters –If better face is established – feel good –If expectations not fulfilled – feel bad or hurt –Neutral experience – expected, not memorable

12 Positive Face One can… –Have face –Be in face –Maintain face –Give face –Save face

13 Librarian Facilitators

14 User Facilitators

15 Librarian and User Facilitator Comparisons

16 Wrong Face One can also… –Be in wrong face –Be out of face –Both result in feeling shame & inferior Poise is ability to conceal shameface In wrong face, can still be confident if others hide this from you

17 Librarian Barriers

18 User Barriers

19 Librarians and User Barrier Comparison

20 Expectations To maintain an expressive order –regulates the flow of events To go to certain lengths to save face of others & themselves –Otherwise seen as cold, heartless, ruthless. To do this willingly & spontaneously because of emotional identification with others & their feelings

21 Kinds of Face-Work Rituals – Greetings & Farewells Corrective Process – Repair & Apology Avoidance Process– Prevent Threats to Face Poise – Control Embarrassment

22 Face-Work in Chat Goffman provides a powerful way to frame analysis of chat encounters. Face, face-work, & line of participants are located in flow of the transcript (event). Analysis identifies instances of face- work. Major categories – see handout.

23 Transcript Reading Positive VRS experience –Duration = 1 hour 11 minutes –Academic User –Question – Boston drug company - diabetes –Relational Work –Enthusiastic user –Helpful librarian Less than positive VRS experience –Duration = 39 minutes –Middle school or high school student –Question – physics – car acceleration –Poor reference work –Extreme negative closure

24 Positive Transcript Example UWhere can I find the leading drug companies in boston doing diabetes treatment / prevention R&D? LI can probably give you a few sources to get started, but I may wind up referring you to a business and/or medial librarian specialist. LLet's start witht eNortheastern library web page... Uok great thanks

25 LOK. I'm going to try the "co-browse" option -- that might let us see the same information at once...(if it's working!) Uwonderful Lsince what you want to find are drug companies, I'll try to get you into a busienss database... Uperfect thank you LSorry, I thought there was a way you could search by sic code and get a ranked list of companies in a certian code. U thats alright, seemed liek you were on the right track Positive Transcript Example

26 Negative Transcript Example U Which way is ur car accelerating when youre thrown forward after hitting another bumper car? LIs this a homework question. LI'm not an expert on driving so I really can't answer that Ucan u find a website or something LI'm not sure what you are asking.

27 Negative Transcript Example U…hello? LI really don't understand how I can answer that for you. Ucan i hav another librarian LThe information you gave you me does not help me find any resources to help you.

28 Endnotes This is one of the outcomes from the project Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives. Funded by IMLS, Rutgers University and OCLC, Online Computer Library Center. Project web site: chronicity/ chronicity/

29 Questions Marie L. Radford, Ph.D. – –www.scils.rutgers.edu/~mradfordwww.scils.rutgers.edu/ Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. – –www.oclc.org/research/staff/connaway.htm


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