Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments Marie L. Radford, Ph.D. Associate Professor,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments Marie L. Radford, Ph.D. Associate Professor,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments Marie L. Radford, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist, OCLC ALISE Denver, CO January 20-23, 2009

2 CREATing successful reference encounters In time, perhaps an overarching model of all reference, regardless of medium of delivery, will be developed. (Pomerantz, 2005) Present new model grounded in Communication & Sociology Theory

3 Relational Theory & Approach to Interpersonal Communication Every message has dual dimensions – both content and relational (Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackson, 1967)

4 Dual Dimensions Content The WHAT of the message Information exchange Relational HOW message is to be taken Relationship of participants

5 Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior (1967) Erving Goffman Essay: On Face-Work: An analysis of Ritual Elements in Social Interaction

6 Model Grounded in Research Identify what is critically important to users & librarians in successful reference interactions FtF Environment Reference Encounter (Radford, 1999) Virtual Reference, Live Chat Environment Seeking Synchronicity (Radford & Connaway, 2005)

7 The Reference Encounter - FtF Major Findings Interpersonal relationships & communication are of great importance in librarian & user perceptions of reference interactions. (Radford, 1999) Librarians value content more, users value relational aspects

8 Findings from Interpersonal Communication Analysis Relational & Content Facilitators Interpersonal aspects of the chat conversation that have a positive impact on the librarian- client interaction and that enhance communication. Relational & Content Barriers Interpersonal aspects of the chat conversation that have a negative impact on the librarian- client interaction and that impede communication.

9 The Reference Encounter - FtF Positive interpersonal aspects (facilitators): Good attitude Relationship quality Approachability Negative interpersonal aspects (barriers): Poor attitude Poor relationship quality Lack of approachability

10 Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives $1,103,572 project funded by: IMLS, Rutgers University & OCLC, Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Project duration: 2.5 Years (10/05-3/08) Four phases: Focus group interviews Analysis of 850 QuestionPoint live chat transcripts Online survey Telephone interviews

11 Findings: Relational AND Content Valued in VR Librarians AND users value both information delivered & relational aspects Greater portion of users value content in VRS than in FtF Librarians are especially sensitive to users attitude in perceptions of unsuccessful VRS encounters (as found in FtF)

12 Interpersonal Skills Important in VR Rapport building Compensation for lack of nonverbal cues Strategies for relationship development Evidence of deference & respect Face-saving tactics Greeting & closing rituals VR users Show more deference Exhibit barriers (rudeness, impatience) that differ greatly from librarian barriers (negative closure, limiting time, reprimands)

13 Relational Dimensions Crucial to Millennial Users Value information delivery Want direct answers Impatient & results oriented Resist instruction in VR encounters, more receptive in FtF More chat speak & texting shortcuts

14 Relational & Content Dimensions (Positive) Relational Dimension Facilitators Positive Attitude Positive Relationship Quality Approachability Positive Impact of Technology Familiarity Greeting Ritual Closing Ritual Content Dimension Facilitators Providing Information Access Accurate Information Specific Information Demonstrating Knowledge (General/Specialized) Appropriate Instruction Convenient/Timely Access

15 Relational & Content Dimensions (Negative) Content Dimension Barriers Lack of Information/Access Lack of Accuracy Negative Impact of Technology Lack of Knowledge (General/Specialized) Lack of Appropriate Instruction Unrealistic Task Relational Dimension Barriers Negative Attitude Negative Relational Quality Lack of Approachability Negative Impact of Technology Lack of Greeting Ritual Lack of Closing Ritual

16 Content/Relational Model Of Success In Synchronous Reference Encounters (FtF & Chat) Relational Dimension (Positive) Content Dimension (Positive) Content Dimension (Negative)Relational Dimension (Negative) Encounter Partially Unsuccessful Encounter Unsuccessful Encounter Successful Positive Attitude Positive Relationship Quality Approachability Positive Impact of Technology Familiarity Greeting Ritual Closing Ritual Providing Information Access Accurate Information Specific Information Demonstrating Knowledge (General/Specialized) Appropriate Instruction Convenient/Timely Access Lack of Information/Access Lack of Accuracy Negative Impact of Technology Lack of Knowledge (General/Specialized) Lack of Appropriate Instruction Unrealistic Task Negative Attitude Negative Relational Quality Lack of Approachability Negative Impact of Technology Lack of Greeting Ritual Lack of Closing Ritual

17 Content/Relational Model Of Success In Synchronous Reference Encounters (FtF & Chat) Relational Dimension (Positive) Content Dimension (Positive) Content Dimension (Negative)Relational Dimension (Negative) Encounter Partially Unsuccessful Encounter Unsuccessful Encounter Successful Positive Attitude Positive Relationship Quality Approachability Positive Impact of Technology Familiarity Greeting Ritual Closing Ritual Providing Information Access Accurate Information Specific Information Demonstrating Knowledge (General/Specialized) Appropriate Instruction Convenient/Timely Access Lack of Information/Access Lack of Accuracy Negative Impact of Technology Lack of Knowledge (General/Specialized) Lack of Appropriate Instruction Unrealistic Task Negative Attitude Negative Relational Quality Lack of Approachability Negative Impact of Technology Lack of Greeting Ritual Lack of Closing Ritual

18 Quadrant 1 Positive Relational & Positive Content – Successful Participants (librarians and users) information & interpersonal needs are met.

19 Quadrant 2 Positive Relational & Negative Content – Partially Unsuccessful Participants interpersonal needs are met, but information needs are not met.

20 Quadrant 3 Positive Content & Negative Relational – Partially Unsuccessful Participants information needs are met, but interpersonal needs are not met.

21 Quadrant 4 - Negative Content & Negative Relational – Unsuccessful Participants information & interpersonal needs are not met.

22 Context & Situation Critical Participant (librarian, user) Characteristics age & gender cultural background educational level users past experience with libraries/librarians technological skills (including keyboarding) subject knowledge language & communication skills institutional affiliation librarians reference service philosophy

23 Situation Reference queries are related to different situations including professional academic personal other

24 Mode of Communication Synchronous reference modes Face-to-face, traditional reference VR (live chat) encounters

25 Implications Information & relationship development critical to successful reference interactions Develop strategies for forming relationships with digital users Sustainability of VRS dependant upon developing positive relationships with users For LIS Education Content & technical skills vitally important Increase emphasis on interpersonal communication Emphasize users point of view

26 Future Research More testing of Theoretical Model Does it hold up in other modes? Non-synchronous modes ( , text messaging)? Next will investigate Instant Messaging (IM) reference environment – growing steadily IM believed to be congruent with model, closely related to live chat

27 References Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 5, Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual, essays on face-to-face behavior. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. Pomerantz, J. (2005). A conceptual framework and open research questions for chat-based reference, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56(12), 1288–1302. Radford, M. L. (June, 2006). Encountering virtual users: A qualitative investigation of interpersonal communication in chat reference. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57(8), Radford, M. L. (1999). The reference encounter: Interpersonal communication in the academic library. Chicago: ACRL, A Division of the American Library Association. Radford, M. L. & Connaway, L. S. ( ). Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives, grant funded by the Institute for Museum and Library Services, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and OCLC, Inc. Available: Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J. & Jackson, D.D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication. NY: Norton.

28 Special Thanks Rutgers University and OCLC Grant Project Team Jocelyn DeAngelis Williams Susanna Sabolsci-Boros Patrick Confer Timothy J. Dickey David Dragos Mary Anne Reilly Julie Strange Lisa Rose-Wiles Andrea Simzak Jannica Heinstrom Janet Torsney Vickie Kozo

29 End Notes This is one of the outcomes from the project Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives Funded by IMLS, Rutgers University, & OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Slides available at project web site: y/ y/


Download ppt "CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments Marie L. Radford, Ph.D. Associate Professor,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google