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CHEMISTRY. Composition of Matter Matter - Everything in universe is composed of matter Matter is anything that occupies space or has mass Mass – quantity.

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Presentation on theme: "CHEMISTRY. Composition of Matter Matter - Everything in universe is composed of matter Matter is anything that occupies space or has mass Mass – quantity."— Presentation transcript:


2 Composition of Matter Matter - Everything in universe is composed of matter Matter is anything that occupies space or has mass Mass – quantity of matter an object has Weight – pull of gravity on an object

3 Elements Pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter More than 100 elements (92 naturally occurring)

4 90% of the mass of an organism is composed of 4 elements (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen) Each element unique chemical symbol Consists of 1-2 letters First letter is always capitalized

5 Atoms The simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element Properties of atoms determine the structure and properties of the matter they compose Our understanding of the structure of atoms based on scientific models, not observation

6 The Nucleus Central core Consists of positive charged protons and neutral neutrons Positively charged Contains most of the mass of the atom

7 The Protons All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons Number of protons called the atomic number Number of protons balanced by an equal number of negatively charged electrons

8 The Neutrons The number varies slightly among atoms of the same element Different numbers of neutrons produce isotopes of the same element

9 Atomic Mass Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom Protons and neutrons each have a mass of 1 amu (atomic mass unit) The atomic mass of an atom is found by adding the number of protons & neutrons in an atom

10 The Electrons Negatively charged high energy particles with little mass Travel at very high speeds at various distances (energy levels) from the nucleus

11 Electrons in the same energy level are approximately the same distance from the nucleus Valence shells = energy levels Each level holds only a certain number of electrons

12 Valence Electrons Valence electrons are found in outer shell of an atom Valence electrons are the only electrons that take part in chemical reactions

13 Energy Levels Energy levels are also known as electron shells or electron clouds. Atoms have 7 electron shells. The first shell can only hold 2 electrons Shells 2-7 can hold 8 electrons (octet rule)

14 Periodic Table Elements are arranged by their atomic number on the Periodic Table The horizontal rows are called Periods & tell the number of energy levels Vertical groups are called Families & tell the outermost number of electrons


16 A compound is a pure substance made up of atoms of two or more elements The proportion of atoms are always fixed Chemical formula shows the kind and proportion of atoms of each element that occurs in a particular compound

17 Molecules are the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of the substance and exists in a free state Some molecules are large and complex

18 Chemical Formulas Subscript after a symbol tell the number of atoms of each element H 2 0 has 2 atoms of hydrogen & 1 atom of oxygen Coefficients before a formula tell the number of molecules 3O 2 represents 3 molecules of oxygen or (3x2) or 6 atoms of oxygen

19 The tendency of elements to combine and form compounds depends on the number and arrangement of electrons in their outermost energy level Atoms are most stable when their outer most energy level is filled

20 Most atoms are not stable in their natural state Tend to react (combine) with other atoms in order to become more stable (undergo chemical reactions) In chemical reactions bonds are broken; atoms rearranged and new chemical bonds are formed that store energy

21 Covalent Bonds Formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

22 Ionic Bonds Some atoms become stable by losing or gaining electrons Atoms that lose electrons are called positive ions

23 Atoms that gain electrons are called negative ions Because positive and negative electrical charges attract each other ionic bonds form

24 Isotopes Atoms with a different than average number of neutrons. Many are radioactive Many are used for “Dating” a substance


26 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

27 Energy and Matter Energy The ability to do work or cause change Occurs in various forms Can be converted to another form Forms important to biological systems are chemical, thermal, electrical and mechanical energy Free energy is the energy in a system that is available for work

28 States of Matter Atoms are in constant motion The rate at which atoms or molecules in a substance move determines its state

29 Solid Molecules are tightly linked. Little energy Liquid Molecules are not as tightly linked Medium amount of energy States of Matter

30 Gas Molecules have little or no attraction to each other Fill the volume of the occupied container Move most rapidly To cause a substance to change state, thermal energy (heat) must be added to or removed from a substance States of Matter

31 Energy and Chemical Reactions Living things undergo thousands of chemical reactions as part of the life process

32 Many are very complex involving multistep sequences called biochemical pathways Chemical equations represent chemical reactions Reactants are shown on the left side of the equation Products are shown on the right side A + B C + D Energy and Chemical Reactions

33 Energy Transfer Much of the energy organisms need is provided by sugar (food) Undergoes a series of chemical reactions in which energy is released (cell respiration) The net release of free energy is called an exothermic reaction

34 Reactions that involve a net absorption of free energy are called endothermic reactions Photosynthesis is an example Energy Transfer Mix Barium hydroxide and aluminum salt, and the products dissolve in water of hydration. This is VERY COLD!

35 Most chemical reactions require energy to begin The amount of energy needed to start the reaction is called activation energy Energy Transfer

36 Certain chemical substances (catalysts) reduce the amount of activation energy required Biological catalysts are called enzymes Catalysts

37 Enzymes are an important class of catalysts in living organisms Mostly protein Thousands of different kinds Each specific for a different chemical reaction Catalysts

38 Enzyme Structure Enzymes work on substances called substrates Substrates must fit into a place on an enzyme called the active site Enzymes are reusable! Enymes end in (ase)

39 Solutions

40 Solutions A solution is a mixture in which 2 or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance

41 Solute is the substance dissolved in the solution Particles may be ions, atoms, or molecules Solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved Water is the universal solvent Solutions

42 Acids and Bases One of the most important aspects of a living system is the degree of acidity or alkalinity

43 pH Scale logarithmic scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution ranges from 0 to 14  Each pH is 10X stronger than next  e.g. ph 1 is 10 times stronger than ph 2

44 Acids Compounds that donate a proton (H+) when dissolved in a solution. the lower the pH the stronger the acid 0-6 on the pH scale HCl  H + + Cl -

45 Bases Compounds that accepts a proton (H+) when dissolved in a solution. the higher the pH the stronger the base 8-14 on the pH scale NaOH  Na + + OH -

46 pH 7.0 is neutral Acids and Bases

47 Buffers Control of pH is very important Most enzymes function only within a very narrow pH Control is accomplished with buffers made by the body Buffers keep a neutral pH (pH 7)

48 Buffers neutralize small amounts of either an acid or base added to a solution Complex buffering systems maintain the pH values of your body’s many fluids at normal and safe levels


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