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The Study of CHEMISTRY Mr. Jones Howells-Dodge Public School A Year in Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "The Study of CHEMISTRY Mr. Jones Howells-Dodge Public School A Year in Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Study of CHEMISTRY Mr. Jones Howells-Dodge Public School A Year in Chemistry

2 Composition of Matter Matter - Everything in the universe is composed of matter Everything that’s not matter is energy or the counterpart of matter & energy. Matter is anything that occupies space or has mass Mass – quantity of matter an object has Weight – force of gravity on an object F g =ma

3 Elements Pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter More than 100 elements (92 naturally occurring)

4 90% of the mass of an organism is composed of 4 elements (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen) Each element unique chemical symbol Consists of 1-2 letters First letter is ALWAYS capitalized

5 Atoms The simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element Properties of atoms determine the structure and properties of the matter they compose Our understanding of the structure of atoms is based on scientific models, not observation

6 The Nucleus Central core Consists of positive charged protons and neutral neutrons Positively charged Contains most of the mass of the atom

7 The Protons All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons Number of protons called the atomic number By convention, the Number of protons are balanced by an equal number of negatively charged electrons

8 The Neutrons The number varies slightly among atoms of the same element Different number of neutrons produces isotopes of the same element

9 Atomic Mass Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom Protons and neutrons each have a mass of 1 amu (atomic mass unit) The atomic mass of an atom is found by adding the number of protons & neutrons in an atom

10 The Electrons Negatively charged high energy particles with little to no mass Travel at very high speeds at various distances (energy levels) from the nucleus In actuality, electrons are just waves (& particles) of energy occupying space

11 Electrons in the same energy level are approximately the same distance from the nucleus Outer energy levels have more energy than inner levels Each level holds only a certain number of electrons

12 Energy Levels Atoms have 7 energy levels The levels are K (closest to the nucleus), L, M, N, O, P, Q (furthest from the nucleus) The K level can only hold 2 electrons Levels L – Q can hold 8 electrons (octet rule)

13 Periodic Table Elements are arranged by their atomic number on the Periodic Table The horizontal rows are called Periods & tell the number of energy levels Vertical groups are called Families & tell the outermost number of electrons, family members have similar properties


15 Compounds Most elements do not exist by themselves Readily combine with other elements in a predictable fashion

16 A compound is a pure ionic substance made up of atoms of two or more elements The proportion of atoms are always fixed (LoDP) Chemical formula shows the kind and proportion of atoms of each element that occurs in a particular compound

17 Molecules are the simplest part of a covalently bonded substance that retains all of the properties of the substance and exists in a free state Some molecules are large and complex

18 Chemical Formulas Subscripts after a symbol tell the number of atoms of each element H 2 0 has 2 atoms of hydrogen & 1 atom of oxygen Coefficients before a formula tell the number of molecules or compounds 3O 2 represents 3 molecules of oxygen & 6 (3x2) atoms of oxygen

19 The physical and chemical properties of a compound differ from the physical and chemical properties of the individual elements that compose it (LoMP)

20 The tendency of elements to combine and form compounds depends on the number and arrangement of electrons in their outermost energy level Atoms are most stable when their outer most energy level is filled

21 Most atoms are not stable in their natural state Atoms tend to react (combine) with other atoms in order to become more STABLE (undergo chemical reactions) In chemical reactions bonds are broken; atoms rearranged and new chemical bonds are formed that store energy

22 Covalent Bonds Formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

23 Ionic Bonds Some atoms become stable by losing or gaining electrons Atoms that lose electrons are called positive ions (cations)

24 Atoms that gain electrons are called negative ions (anions), again those that lose are called cations & those that gain electrons are called anions. Because positive and negative electrical charges attract each other ionic bonds form

25 Energy and Matter Energy The ability to do work or cause change Occurs in various forms Can be converted to another for but is not generally lost (LoCoE) Forms important to biological systems are chemical, thermal, electrical and mechanical energy Free energy is the energy in a system that is available for work

26 States of Matter Atoms are in constant motion The rate at which atoms or molecules in a substance move determines its state

27 Solid Molecules tightly linked together in a definite shape Vibrate in place Fixed volume and shape

28 Liquids Molecules not as tightly linked as a solid Maintain fixed volume Able to flow and conform to shape of container

29 Gas Molecules have little or no attraction to each other Fill the volume of the occupied container Move most rapidly To cause a substance to change state, thermal energy (heat) must be added to or removed from a substance

30 Plasma Fourth state of matter Gaseous ions with more energy than gas High energy charged particles Most common state in the universe but lease common natural state on Earth

31 Energy and Chemical Reactions Living things undergo thousands of chemical reactions as part of the life process

32 Many are very complex involving multistep sequences called biochemical pathways Chemical equations represent chemical reactions Reactants are shown on the left side of the equation Products are shown on the right side

33 The number of each kind of atom must be the same on either side of the arrow (equation must be balanced) (LoCoM) Bonds may be broken or made forming new compounds

34 Energy Transfer Much of the energy organisms need is provided by sugar (food) Undergoes a series of chemical reactions in which energy is released (cell respiration) The net release of free energy is called an exergonic (exothermic) reaction

35 Reactions that involve a net absorption of free energy are called endergonic (endothermic) reactions Photosynthesis is an example Most reactions in living organisms are exergonic; therefore living organisms require a constant source of energy

36 Most chemical reactions require energy to begin The amount of energy needed to start the reaction is called activation energy

37 Certain chemical substances (catalysts) reduce the amount of activation energy required Biological catalysts are called enzymes

38 Enzymes are an important class of catalysts in living organisms Mostly protein Thousands of different kinds Each specific for a different chemical reaction

39 Enzyme Structure Enzymes work on substances called substrates Substrates must fit into a place on an enzyme called the active site Enzymes are reusable unless the become denatured

40 Reduction-Oxidation Reactions Many of the chemical reactions that help transfer energy in living organisms involve the transfer of electrons (reduction-oxidation = redox reactions)

41 Oxidation reaction – reactant loses electron(s) becoming more positive

42 Reduction reaction – reactant gains electron(s) becoming more negative

43 Solutions & Fluids

44 A solution is a mixture in which 2 or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance

45 Solute is the substance dissolved in the solution Particles may be ions, atoms, or molecules Solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved Water is the universal solvent

46 Solutions can be composed of varying proportions of a given solute in a given solvent --- vary in concentration (measurement of the amount of solute to solvent) A saturated solution is one in which no more solute can be dissolved Aqueous solution (water) are universally important to living things

47 Dissociation of water Breaking apart of the water molecule into two ions of opposite charge (due to strong attraction of oxygen atom of one molecule for H atom of another water molecule) H 2 O  H + (hydrogen ion) + OH - (hydroxide ion) H + + H 2 O  H 3 O (hydronium ion)

48 Acids and Bases One of the most important aspects of a living system is the degree of acidity or alkalinity

49 Acids Number of hydronium ions [H + ] in solutions is greater than the number of hydroxide ions HCl  H + + Cl -

50 Bases Number of hydroxide ions [OH - ] in solution is greater than the number of hydronium ions NaOH  Na + + OH -

51 pH Scale logarithmic scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution ranges from 0 to 14  Each pH is 10X stronger than next  e.g. pH 1 is 10 times more concentrated with [H + ] than ph 2

52 the lower the pH the stronger the acid the higher the pH the stronger the base pH 7.0 is neutral relative to temperature & pressure

53 Buffers Control of pH is very important Most enzymes function only within a very narrow pH Control is accomplished with buffers made by the body Buffers keep a neutral pH (pH 7)

54 Buffers neutralize small amounts of either an acid or base added to a solution Complex buffering systems maintain the pH values of your body ’ s many fluids at normal and safe levels

55 More Chemistry… If time permits we will also cover... Nuclear Chemistry Types of reactions Particle emissions Half life Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Basic reactions

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