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Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

2 Competency 19.00 Describe the grading system for various feeder/finish livestock

3 Objective 19.01 4 Describe the grading system for various feeder/finish livestock

4 Beef Cattle Classes 4 Age classes –Calves less than one year of age –Cattle One year or older –Veal calves Less than three months old

5 Beef Cattle Classes 4 Age classes continued –Slaughter calves 3 months to one year old –Feeder calves 6 months to one year old

6 Beef Cattle Classes 4 Sex Classes –Steer Male castrated before sexual maturity –Heifer Has not had a calf or matured –Cow –Bull –Stag Male castrated after sexual maturity

7 Beef Cattle Grades 4 Quality Grades –Prime –Choice –Select –Standard –Commercial –Utility –Cutter –Canner

8 Beef Cattle Grades 4 Yield Grades –Yield Grade 1 –Yield Grade 2 –Yield Grade 3 –Yield Grade 4 –Yield Grade 5

9 Beef Cattle Grades 4 Feeder Cattle Grades –Determined by: Frame size Muscle thickness Thriftiness 4 Slaughter Cattle Grades –Both quality and yield grades

10 Swine Classes 4 Use Classes –Slaughter To be killed and sold as meat –Feeder To be feed to heavier weights before slaughter

11 Swine Classes 4 Sex Classes –Barrow Male castrated before sexual maturity –Guilt Young female that has not had pigs –Sow –Boar –Stag

12 Swine Grades 4 Slaughter swine –Quality and Yield determine USDA grades U.S. Number 1 U.S. Number 2 U.S. Number 3 U.S. Number 4 U.S. Utility 4 Feeder pig –Grades determined by slaughter potential and thriftiness

13 Objective 19.02 4 Classify grades of feeder/finish livestock

14 Beef Grades Quality Grade 4 Determined by: –Animals age –Muscling –Marbeling

15 Quality Grade (Beef) 1)Age and Class of Animal Steers and HeifersPrime, Choice, Good, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner CowsAll except Prime Bulls and StagsAll except Prime and Choice

16 Quality Grade (Beef) 2) Muscling –The amount and distribution of the finish –Firmness or fullness covering the animals body

17 Examples of Quality Grade (Beef)

18 Quality Grade (Beef) 3) Marbling 4 Intermingling of fat with muscle fibers 4 Observed in the ribeye muscle between the 12 th and 13 th rib 4 Adequate marbling must be present for tenderness and high quality grades 4 The fat should not be soft and oily

19 Very AbundantSlight Marbling (Beef)

20 Slight Marbling

21 Marbling (Beef) Small Marbling

22 Marbling (Beef) Modest Marbling

23 Marbling (Beef) Moderate Marbling

24 Marbling (Beef) Slightly Abundant Marbling

25

26 Quality Grade (Beef) 4 Maximum age –Standard, Select, Choice, or Prime is 42 months or less –Commercial grade is over 42 months –Utility, Cutter, or Canner have no age limits –No Prime grade for slaughter cows

27 Yield Grades (Beef) 4 Percentage of the carcass that is boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin rib, and chuck 4 Numbered 1 to 5 –Yield 1 Best muscling with least amount of fat –Yield 5 Worst grade with the less muscle and more fat waste

28 Yield Grades (Beef) Relationship of Yield Grades and Cutability Yield Grade- % Boneless, Closely Trimmed Retail Cuts From the Round, Loin, Rib and Chuck 152.6 - 54.6 250.3 - 52.3 348.0 - 50.0 445.7 - 47.7 543.3 - 45.4

29 Yield Grades (Beef) The terms "yield" and "yield grade" should not be confused. "Yield" alone means dressing percentage (carcass weight divided by live weight multiplied by 100), and is not directly related to yield grades or cutability.

30 Yield Grades (Beef) 1. Adjusted fat thickness- External fat is measured at the 12th rib 2. Percentage of Kidney, Pelvic and Heart Fat (KPH)- A subjective estimate of fat 3. Rib Eye Area 4. Hot Carcass Weight

31 Yield Grades (Beef) USDA yield grades estimate the quantity of edible meat from the major wholesale cuts-- round, loin, rib and chuck

32 Yield Grades (Beef)

33 Swine Grades 4 Quality Grade –Determined by the percent of carcass weight of the: Ham Loin Boston butt Picnic shoulder 4 Yield –Determined by backfat and degree of muscling

34 Objective 19.03 4 Classify grades of feeder/finish livestock using a given criteria

35 Feeder Steer and Heifer Grades 4 USDA Number 1, 2 and 3 4 Each USDA Grade has: –Large Frame –Medium Frame –Small Frame

36 Slaughter Steer and Heifer Grades 4 USDA Quality grades from Prime down to Canner –About 80% of grain fed grade choice. 4 USDA Yield grades from Yield Grade 1 down to Yield Grade 5

37 Feeder Swine 4 Five U.S Grades (1,2,3,4, and Utility) –U. S. No. 1 Has thick muscling, large frame, and is trim. –Utility Grade Diseased or unthrifty Has a head that appears too big for the body and has wrinkled skin. 4 Potential for feeding out to slaughter weight and grade affects feeder pig grades

38 Slaughter Barrows and Guilts 4 USDA grades from U.S. No. 1 down to U.S. No. 4 4 Muscling –thick –average –thin

39 Slaughter Barrows and Guilts 4 U.S. No. 1 Less than 1.00 inch. 4 U.S. No. 2 1.00 to 1.24 inches. 4 U.S. No. 3 1.25 to 1.49 inches. 4 U.S. No. 4 1.50 inches and over 4 U.S. No. 1 must be no less than average muscling.

40 Slaughter Barrows and Guilts 4 Backfat –Maximum backfat for U.S. No. 1 is 1.0 inch or 1.25 inch if muscling is thick. –Maximum backfat for U.S. No. 3 is 1.49 or 1.75 if thick muscling –Thick muscling compensates for or effectively subtracts 0.25 inch of backfat, and thin muscling adds 0.25 inch of backfat to the formula.


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