Presentation on theme: "Marketing Systems For Livestock and Poultry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Marketing Systems For Livestock and Poultry Brandy Starnes, ERHS, 2010
2 You should be able to:3.01 Define cutability, degree of lean, marbling, and quality features used to market beef and swine3.02 Identify wholesale and retail cuts3.03 Define terminology used in poultry evaluation3.04 Methods used to market livestock and poultry
3 Define cutability, degree of lean, marbling, and quality features used to market beef and swine
4 What is Cutability?The term ‘cutability’ describes the proportion of an animal which is saleable meat.Dressing percentagePercentage of the live animal which forms its carcassSaleable meat yield or retail yieldPercentage of the carcass which is saleable meat.
5 What is Cutability? No two animals are the same Cutability varies widely between individual animalsThis variation affects financial returns to producers, wholesalers and retailers.
7 High Cutability Wide stance Convex shoulders and hindquarters Trim brisketWide over the shouldersConvex rump
8 Low CutabilityAnimals with low cutability do not look muscular, indicating a low ratio of muscle to bone.a narrow stance, especially through the lower hindquarters;a prominent gut that is the widest point of the animal when it is viewed from behind;flat forearms and shoulders;narrow, poorly developed loins sloping down from the backbone.
9 Low CutabilityAnimals that are overfat and have an uneven distribution of fat have:lumpy deposits of fat in the brisket flank and tailheada smooth appearance;a level underline;a deep body;flatness over the top of the rump;a smooth tail setting;a soft, spongy feel
10 Grading Meat Beef and Swine are graded using Quality Grades The worthiness of the meat producedTenderness, juiciness, and flavorYield GradesThe amount of meat produced from a specific carcass
11 Grading Meat 1. Quality Grades Determined by the class or kind of animal (steer, heifer, cow, bull), age or maturity, firmness and marbling of the carcass.
12 Quality Grades Prime Choice Select Standard and Commercial Utility, Cutter, and Canner
13 Grading Meat Prime grade Choice grade Produced from young, well-fed beef cattle. It has abundant marbling and is generally sold in restaurants and hotelsChoice gradeHigh quality, but has less marbling than Prime
14 Grading Meat Select grade Very uniform in quality and normally leaner than the higher gradesFairly tender, but, because it has less marbling, it may lack some of the juiciness and flavor of the higher grades
15 Grading Meat Standard and Commercial grades Frequently are sold as non-graded or as "store brand" meatUtility, Cutter, and Canner gradesAre seldom, if ever, sold at retail but are used instead to make ground beef and processed products
16 Grading Meat 2. Yield grade Percentage of the carcass that is boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin rib, and chuckGrades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
17 Grading Meat 3. Marbling Intermingling of fat among the muscle fiber Measured in the ribeye between the 12th and 13th rib
18 Grading MeatSwine1. Quality grade is determined by quality of lean meat and yield.2. Quality of lean is determined by firmness of lean, firmness of fat, and distribution of external finish (fat).3. Yield is evaluated by thickness of backfat and degree of muscling.4. Degrees of muscling are thick, average and thin.
19 Grading Meat Swine (continued) 5. United States No. 1 hog must have at least average muscling.6. Thick muscling helps offset backfat thickness.7. Cutability is the yield of closely trimmed, boneless retail cuts that come from the major wholesale cuts of carcass.8. United States No. 1 should yield 60.4% or higher.
20 Pop Quiz1) Describe or define cutability. 2) What are the degrees of muscling in swine? 3) What places highest, Choice, Select, or Commercial? 4) Where is marbling assessed on each carcass? 5) What determines a quality grade in cattle?
35 Cuts of Pork Pork Chops Boston Butt Picnic Shoulder Country Ham The Ham, Loin, Picnic Shoulder and Boston Butt make up 75% of the retail value of the carcass
36 ActivityUse Aripedia to practice labeling the wholesale and retail cuts of Pork.
37 Poultry Carcass Evaluation 3.03 Define terminology used in poultry carcass selection and evaluation Poultry Carcass Evaluation
38 Why Grade Poultry Carcasses? To insure quality before it is soldPrevent the selling of an unwholesome productDid you know?Grading is voluntary and paid for by the meat packer?
39 Grading Poultry Carcasses USDA Grades indicate quality not sanitationReady-to-cook means that certain parts have been removedheadfeet and feathersbloodviscera (soft internal organs)
40 What are the Grades? Poultry Carcass Grades: Grade A Grade B Grade C Sold in storesGrade BOften not a grade sold in storesGrade CUsually used for processing into other food products
41 Evaluation Factors confirmation disjointed and broken bones fleshing Poultry carcasses are graded on the following factors:confirmationfleshingfat coveringexposed fleshdiscolorationdisjointed and broken bonesmissing partsfreezing defects
42 Evaluation Factors Confirmations Fleshing Fat covering normal breastbone, back, leg and wingsFleshingwell fleshed or muscled is idealFat coveringwell covered is ideal
43 Evaluation Factors Exposed Flesh Grade A (2 pound to 6 pound birds) Breast and leg can not have over 1/4 inchOther parts can have a maximum of 1 and 1/2 inches
44 Evaluation Factors Exposed Flesh (continued) Grade B Grade C No more than 1/3 of the total flesh of each particular part can be exposedMeat yield cannot be affected (i.e. no cuts into the meat)Grade CNo limit
45 Evaluation Factors Disjointed and broken bones Grade A Grade B (2 pound to 6 pound birds)Grade A1 disjointed and no brokenGrade B2 disjointed and no broken or 1 disjointed and 1 broken non-protruding
46 Evaluation Factors Disjointed and broken bones Grade C (continued) No limitProtruding bones automatic Grade C
47 Evaluation Factors Missing Parts Grade A Grade B (2 pound to 6 pound birds)Grade AWing tips and tail (removal of the preen glandGrade BWing tips to the 2nd wing jointBack area not wider than base of tail and extending half way between the base of tail and hip joints
48 Evaluation Factors Missing Parts Grade C (continued) Wing tips, wings and tailBack area not wider than the base of tail extending to area between the hip joints
49 ActivityWatch how the Perdue University Poultry Team grades Poultry:
55 Over 1/3 of the drumstick flesh is exposed What Grade is this?C Grade.Over 1/3 of the drumstick flesh is exposed
56 Trimmed more than halfway between base of tail and hip joints What Grade is this?C GradeTrimmed more than halfway between base of tail and hip joints
57 Protruding broken bone in wing tip What Grade is this?C gradeProtruding broken bone in wing tip
58 Activity/QuizGrade this set of fresh poultry carcasses
59 3.03 Describe the methods used to market livestock and poultry
60 Methods of Marketing Terminal Markets Central markets on public stockyardsLivestock are consigned to a commission firm to bargain with buyers for a certain fee
61 Methods of Marketing Auction Markets Public bidding Sell to the buyer that bids the highest
62 Methods of Marketing Direct selling No middle person Producer sells straight to the buyerNo commission or fees
63 Methods of Marketing Electronic marketing auctioning on-line using computersFutures marketing and hedginglegal documentcalls for the delivery in the futureprices are locked in to a futures price
64 Vertical Integration Definition Two or more steps of production, marketing and processing are linked together usually by a contract between the producer and feed manufactures or between producers and processors including all three