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Brandy Starnes, ERHS, 2010  3.01 Define cutability, degree of lean, marbling, and quality features used to market beef and swine  3.02 Identify wholesale.

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Presentation on theme: "Brandy Starnes, ERHS, 2010  3.01 Define cutability, degree of lean, marbling, and quality features used to market beef and swine  3.02 Identify wholesale."— Presentation transcript:


2 Brandy Starnes, ERHS, 2010

3  3.01 Define cutability, degree of lean, marbling, and quality features used to market beef and swine  3.02 Identify wholesale and retail cuts  3.03 Define terminology used in poultry evaluation  3.04 Methods used to market livestock and poultry


5  The term ‘cutability’ describes the proportion of an animal which is saleable meat.  Dressing percentage ▪ Percentage of the live animal which forms its carcass  Saleable meat yield or retail yield ▪ Percentage of the carcass which is saleable meat.

6  No two animals are the same  Cutability varies widely between individual animals  This variation affects financial returns to producers, wholesalers and retailers.


8  Wide stance  Convex shoulders and hindquarters  Trim brisket  Wide over the shoulders  Convex rump

9  Animals with low cutability do not look muscular, indicating a low ratio of muscle to bone.  a narrow stance, especially through the lower hindquarters;  a prominent gut that is the widest point of the animal when it is viewed from behind;  flat forearms and shoulders;  narrow, poorly developed loins sloping down from the backbone.

10  Animals that are overfat and have an uneven distribution of fat have:  lumpy deposits of fat in the brisket flank and tailhead  a smooth appearance;  a level underline;  a deep body;  flatness over the top of the rump;  a smooth tail setting;  a soft, spongy feel

11  Beef and Swine are graded using  Quality Grades ▪ The worthiness of the meat produced ▪ Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor  Yield Grades ▪ The amount of meat produced from a specific carcass

12 1. Quality Grades  Determined by the class or kind of animal (steer, heifer, cow, bull), age or maturity, firmness and marbling of the carcass.

13  Prime  Choice  Select  Standard and Commercial  Utility, Cutter, and Canner

14  Prime grade  Produced from young, well-fed beef cattle. It has abundant marbling and is generally sold in restaurants and hotels  Choice grade  High quality, but has less marbling than Prime

15  Select grade  Very uniform in quality and normally leaner than the higher grades  Fairly tender, but, because it has less marbling, it may lack some of the juiciness and flavor of the higher grades

16  Standard and Commercial grades  Frequently are sold as non-graded or as "store brand" meat  Utility, Cutter, and Canner grades  Are seldom, if ever, sold at retail but are used instead to make ground beef and processed products

17  2. Yield grade ▪ Percentage of the carcass that is boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin rib, and chuck ▪ Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

18  3. Marbling  Intermingling of fat among the muscle fiber  Measured in the ribeye between the 12th and 13th rib

19 Swine  1. Quality grade is determined by quality of lean meat and yield.  2. Quality of lean is determined by firmness of lean, firmness of fat, and distribution of external finish (fat).  3. Yield is evaluated by thickness of backfat and degree of muscling.  4. Degrees of muscling are thick, average and thin.

20 Swine (continued)  5. United States No. 1 hog must have at least average muscling.  6. Thick muscling helps offset backfat thickness.  7. Cutability is the yield of closely trimmed, boneless retail cuts that come from the major wholesale cuts of carcass.  8. United States No. 1 should yield 60.4% or higher.

21 cutability 1) Describe or define cutability. 2) What are the degrees of muscling in swine? 3) What places highest, Choice, Select, or Commercial? 4) Where is marbling assessed on each carcass? 5) What determines a quality grade in cattle?

22  Watch Modern Marvels “The Butcher”

23  Cuts of Beef and Swine


25  Wholesale  High value ▪ loin, rib, rump, round  Low Value ▪ chuck, brisket, flank, plate or navel, shank

26  High Value ▪ ribeye from the rib ▪ tenderloin from the loin ▪ sirloin from the loin ▪ rump from the rump ▪ T-bone form the loin




30 T-Bone Ground Beef Stew Beef Sirloin Ribeye Tenderloin

31  Wholesale  High Value ▪ loin, ham, picnic shoulder, Boston shoulder or butt  Low Value ▪ spareribs or belly, feet, jowl, backfat, spareribs or side, bacon

32  loin  rib  rump  round  chuck  brisket  flank  plate or navel  shank Use Aripedia to practice labeling the wholesale and retail cuts of beef.Aripedia


34  Retail  High Value ▪ ham, loin, tenderloin, pork chops, Boston butt, picnic ham (shoulder)  Low Value ▪ hocks, spareribs, belly, bacon, jowl, fatback


36 Pork Chops Picnic Shoulder Country Ham The Ham, Loin, Picnic Shoulder and Boston Butt make up 75% of the retail value of the carcass Boston Butt

37 Use Aripedia to practice labeling the wholesale and retail cuts of Pork.Aripedia

38 3.03 Define terminology used in poultry carcass selection and evaluation Poultry Carcass Evaluation

39  To insure quality before it is sold  Prevent the selling of an unwholesome product Did you know? Grading is voluntary and paid for by the meat packer?

40  USDA Grades indicate quality not sanitation  Ready-to-cook means that certain parts have been removed  head  feet and feathers  blood  viscera (soft internal organs)

41  Poultry Carcass Grades:  Grade A ▪ Sold in stores  Grade B ▪ Often not a grade sold in stores  Grade C ▪ Usually used for processing into other food products

42  confirmation  fleshing  fat covering  exposed flesh  discoloration  disjointed and broken bones  missing parts  freezing defects Poultry carcasses are graded on the following factors:

43  Confirmations  normal breastbone, back, leg and wings  Fleshing  well fleshed or muscled is ideal  Fat covering  well covered is ideal

44  Exposed Flesh (2 pound to 6 pound birds)  Grade A ▪ Breast and leg can not have over 1/4 inch ▪ Other parts can have a maximum of 1 and 1/2 inches

45  Exposed Flesh (continued)  Grade B ▪ No more than 1/3 of the total flesh of each particular part can be exposed ▪ Meat yield cannot be affected (i.e. no cuts into the meat)  Grade C ▪ No limit

46  Disjointed and broken bones (2 pound to 6 pound birds)  Grade A ▪ 1 disjointed and no broken  Grade B ▪ 2 disjointed and no broken or 1 disjointed and 1 broken non- protruding

47  Disjointed and broken bones (continued)  Grade C ▪ No limit ▪ Protruding bones automatic Grade C

48  Missing Parts (2 pound to 6 pound birds)  Grade A ▪ Wing tips and tail (removal of the preen gland  Grade B ▪ Wing tips to the 2nd wing joint ▪ Back area not wider than base of tail and extending half way between the base of tail and hip joints

49  Missing Parts (continued)  Grade C ▪ Wing tips, wings and tail ▪ Back area not wider than the base of tail extending to area between the hip joints

50  Watch how the Perdue University Poultry Team grades Poultry:

51 What Grade is this? Grade A No Defects

52 B Grade Back is cut out halfway between the base of the tail and the hip joints

53 C Grade. More than 1/3 of flesh exposed on breast

54 B Grade. Parts of wing removed beyond the second joint

55 C Grade. Entire wing removed

56 C Grade. Over 1/3 of the drumstick flesh is exposed

57 C Grade Trimmed more than halfway between base of tail and hip joints

58 C grade Protruding broken bone in wing tip

59  Grade this set of fresh poultry carcasses


61  Terminal Markets  Central markets on public stockyards  Livestock are consigned to a commission firm to bargain with buyers for a certain fee

62  Auction Markets  Public bidding  Sell to the buyer that bids the highest

63  Direct selling  No middle person  Producer sells straight to the buyer  No commission or fees

64  Electronic marketing  auctioning on-line using computers  Futures marketing and hedging  legal document  calls for the delivery in the future  prices are locked in to a futures price

65  Definition  Two or more steps of production, marketing and processing are linked together usually by a contract between the producer and feed manufactures or between producers and processors including all three

66 Holly Farms, Case, Purdue Poultry Farmer or producer Hatchery Grain producer

67  About 99% of all broilers and a very high percentage of turkeys, laying hens and swine are grown and marketed through vertical integration contracts

68 What type of marketing is this? A B C D

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