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The US between the World Wars

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Presentation on theme: "The US between the World Wars"— Presentation transcript:

1 The US between the World Wars
Goal 9 The US between the World Wars

2 9.01 Elaborate on the cycle of economic boom and bust in the 1920’s and 1930’s

3 The Impact of Presidential policies on economic activity --Harding, Coolidge, Hoover, and Roosevelt

4 Warren Harding “Return to Normalcy”-Republican elected in 1920; promised to return to America peacetime Teapot Dome Scandal- Harding’s Sec. of Interior Albert Fall arrested for leasing gov. owned oil fields to private business

5 Calvin Coolidge “business of America is business”
Laissez-faire; government will stay out of the affairs of business Hawley Smoot Tariff- large protective tariff

6 Herbert Hoover President when depression begins
Thought depression would fix itself Rugged Individualism- people take care of their own family everything would be okay; no need for government handouts

7 Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
Direct Relief to help people during Great Depression Relief, Recovery, Reform FDR’s government programs of giving food and money known as “New Deal”

8 Rise and decline of major industries in the United States

9 Mechanization Jobs were lost to machines
Production of durable goods such as cars and washing machines increases Unemployment increases and a surplus of goods is created

10 Factors leading to Stock Market crash and the Great Depression

11 1. Overproduction Main cause Surplus = lower sale price
Lower sale price = lower profit Lower profit = inability to pay workers Inability to pay workers = unemployment

12 2. Speculation Buying large quantities of stocks hoping the price will go up and you can turn a quick profit

13 3. Buying on Margin Borrowing money from a stockbroker to buy stock with hopes to make a profit to pay back the broker The broker can make a “margin call” for their money to be repaid

14 4. Easy Credit Buy now pay later
Installment buying…getting the product and making payments (car) People begin to spend money on debt and can’t buy any new products

15 5. Lack of Foreign Trade WWI; Treaty of Versailles hurts Europe’s ability for foreign trade Hawley Smoot tariff

16 6. Unequal Distribution of Wealth
Small percent of people control large percent of the money Large gap between rich and poor

17 Black Tuesday Oct 29, 1929 Stock Market crashes Over $3 Billion lost
Triggers the Great Depression

18 Analyze life during the Great Depression
9.02 / 9.03 Analyze significant social, intellectual, and technological changes in the US Analyze life during the Great Depression

19 The Impact of Mass Media

20 Radio TV of that generation Allowed people to listen to programming
Allowed people to hear news Allowed people to hear advertisement

21 Advertising Created a “need” for products such as deodorants, soap, etc. Used celebrities to endorse products

22 Jazz New music of the era Derived from the African-American community
Duke Ellington

23 Films Silent Movies Charlie Chaplin First “talkie” was The Jazz Singer

24 Lost Generation Group of artists that didn’t fit into society after WWI F Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby: about materialism of the 20s Ernest Hemingway- A Farewell to Arms: talked about the meaningless of war

25 The Harlem Renaissance

26 Harlem Renaissance Flowering of African American art, music, and literature Expressed cultural pride and discontent with racism in America

27 Langston Hughes Major black writer of the Harlem Renaissance

28 Louie Armstrong Famous Jazz musician of the Harlem Renaissance

29 Prohibition

30 Organized Crime 18th Amendment prohibit alcohol
Competition for control of the illegal liquor trade Gangsters such as Al Capone

31 Speakeasies Illegal bars that served alcohol
Bootleggers- people that illegally produced alcohol

32 Leisure Time and Spectator Sports

33 Babe Ruth Sultan of Swat; King of Swing
Famous baseball player; most famous athlete of the 20s Comparable to Michael Jordan or Tiger Woods of today’s era

34 Charles Lindberg 1st to fly solo across the Atlantic New York to Paris
33 1/2 hours “Lucky Lindy” Plane: The Spirit of St. Louis

35 Life During the Depression
No unemployment or welfare Homeless built shantytowns such as this one. They referred to these homeless areas as “Hoovervilles.”

36 Breadlines Many had to stand in breadlines such as this one to receive their only meal of the day

37 Soup Kitchens Many went to soup kitchens to get their only meal

38 Problems of Prosperity
Farmers do not enjoy prosperity. Farm prices drop while the cost of farming increases. People are getting rich by speculating and buying on the margin. People also acquire consumer goods through installment plans (credit)

39 The Dust Bowl Farmers continue to suffer.
Prices continue to drop and a severe drought in the mid 1930’s crushed the farm industry. Many farmers leave the midwest and head to farms on the east and west coasts. Okies

40 The Bonus Army Many WWI vets demanded their retirement pensions early
Vets march on Washington Hoover locks himself in his office

41 Fireside Chats FDR uses the radio to communicate with America about getting out of the depression Weekly broadcast “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself”

42 9.04 Describe challenges to traditional practices in religion, race, and gender

43 Back to Africa Marcus Garvey Founded the UNIA Unsuccessful
Garvey was found guilty of embezzlement and was deported

44 Fundamentalism Belief that The Bible is literal and should be seen and taught as such Prevailing idea in the rural south

45 Scopes Trial Dayton, TN passed a law prohibiting the teaching of evolution John T. Scopes was arrested for teaching evolution Case focused more on evolution or creationism instead of guilt or innocence

46 Billy Sunday Evangelical preacher Fundamentalist Anti-communist

47 Changing role of Women Flapper: new woman of the 20s
Promiscuous, smoke, drank alcohol Margaret Sanger: began planned parenthood and abortion clinic

48 9.05 Assess the impact of the New Deal reforms in enlarging the role of the federal government.

49 New Deal Social Securtiy-pensions for the elderly
FDIC-protected depositors’ money in the bank SEC-regulated trading on stock market PWA-built schools, hospitals, roads, dams-----public works CCC-gave young men jobs in parks

50 New Deal-cont. AAA-paid farmers not to grow crops
TVA-built dams in the Appalachian region WPA-created work: blue collar workers

51 3 R’s Relief-give out money Recovery-help economy recover
Reform-take measures to prevent a crash from happening

52 Critics of New Deal Father Charles Coughlin-redistribution of wealth
Dr. Francis Townsend-early retirement Huey Long-Share our Wealth; Robin Hood idea of take from reach and give to the poor

53 More FDR Frances Perkins-first female to the cabinet Brain Trust
Elected 4 times Attempts to expand size of Supreme Court

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