Presentation on theme: "Beneficial and Harmful Insects"— Presentation transcript:
1Beneficial and Harmful Insects Plant PestBeneficial and Harmful Insects
2Objectives Compare and Contrast complete and incomplete metamorphosis. Identify and describe beneficial insects.Identify and describe harmful insects.**For this lesson you will need to take notes on the different insects mentioned**
3Introduction Plants naturally have inherited problems These plants rarely can be cured.The best way to avoid this is to choose plants best adapted for the region.Florida has more different kinds of insects that any other state.
4Introduction (continued) Most insects are NOT harmful to our plants.Harmful insects are harmful due to:Feeding HabitsBreedingShelter Habits
5Insect Lifecycles Complete Metamorphosis Metamorphosis: when insects pass through several stages during development.Complete Metamorphosis4 stages: Egg, Larva, Pupa, AdultExamples:ButterfliesMealwormsLadybugs
7Beneficial InsectsLess than one half of one percent are actually pests.Many beneficial insects feed on insects that are pests.Example: Spiders, Assassin Bugs, Praying Mantids, Lacewings, Parasitic Wasps
8Ladybeetles Florida’s most beneficial insect!! Both adults and larva prey on AphidsAdults: oval, red and black, or black/yellowAdult eating Aphid Full Grown Larva Ladybeetle Eggs
9Praying Mantids Very large insects (up to 2” in length) Can be either green or brownFront legs modified for grasping preyFeed on flies, honeybees, crickets & mothsAdult Praying Mantis Egg case (ootheca) and Larva
10Assassin Bugs Generally black or brown (can be bright) Found on foliage where they attack preyCaterpillars are their favorite lunch!!Typically ambush their prey.
11Lacewings Commonly found on grasses, row crops, shrubs and trees. Feed on Aphids which nicknames them “Aphidlion”Green with copper eyes
12Parasitic Wasps Extremely important insects!! Very small (1/8”) and go unnoticedThey lay eggs on the body of a host insectImmature stage consumes the hostPrey on:Scales, Whitefiles, Aphids, Leafminers and caterpillars
13Spider Rarely Bite Humans! Predaceous, feed on a wide variety of insectsParalyze their prey with a venom biteMost use webs but most beneficial spiders do not spin webs.Examples: Wolf, Jumping and Crab
14Insects as Pests (Harmful) Pests of plants are typically divided into groups according to the way they damage plantsMost insects damage plants with their mouthparts.Piercing-Sucking MouthpartsChewing Mouthparts (Foliage Feeding Insects)
15Piercing Sucking Mouthparts Tube like mouthpart which inserts into a food sourcePlant, other insect, humans etc.Cause damage to plants:StuntingYellowingOften are not affected by exterior pesticides as they feed on the interior of leaves
16Chewing MouthpartsFeed on leaves, flowers and also attack the roots of plants.Mouthparts move side to side similar to scissors.Examples include:CaterpillarBeetleGrasshopperKatydids
17Scales (p.s.) Most serious pests on many ornamental plants. Many species of soft and hard scales in Florida.Cause yellow spots to appear on the top sides of leavesSecrete a waxy covering over their bodies when mature making them hard to control.
18Mealybugs (p.s.) Pests to foliage plants, annuals and perennials. Excrete honeydew which serves as medium for fungus.Soft bodied ScaleCommon on:AzaleaColeusCrotonCactus
19Aphids (p.s) Pear shaped Will infest any plant Cause damage by sucking out plant juicesTransmit viral diseasesMostly female and reproduce without matingEach produce 50 – 100 daughters which reproduce in 8 days!!
20Whiteflies Common on ornamental plants Resemble moths Plants become pale or spottedCan transmit virusesDeposit eggs on underside of leavesEaten by Lady Beetles and lace wings
21Lacebugs (p.s.) Brown with clear wings. Damage on top side of leaf as white specksShiny black spots of excrement on underside of leavesCause damage to:AzaleaHawthorns
22Thrips (p.s) Very small and slender Remove plant juices Life cycle takes 2-4 weeksFoliage feedersInfested plants have stippled appearance and small brown specks.
23Caterpillars (ch) Immature stage of moths/butterflies Vary in color and hair stinging rose Devour foliage leaves holes and irregular areas or can strip leaves completely
24Grasshopper and Katydid (ch) Consume large quantities of foliage on ornamentalsAdults lay eggs clumped together in pods (in soil)1 complete life cycle per yearFeeding habits vary greatly
25Beetles (ch) Hard shelled insect Chew off parts of the foliage or flowers of many plants.Mostly active at night.Larvae feed on the roots or bore through stems and branches.
26Plant Insect Awareness Project: Most people are unaware of the harms and benefits of the many insects that reside in Florida.You are to create a Public Awareness Poster and insect model for your specific insect.This is a two part project:Part 1: Create a poster displaying facts about either your Beneficial or Harmful insectPart 2: Create a model of the insect using a variety of materials.
27Plant Insect Awareness Project Things to include on your poster:Life cycle of insectDescription of insectHarms or BenefitsWhere found (plants)Things to include for your insect model:Needs to be actual model of insect!!Including proper mouthparts, legs, body segments, eyes, etc.You may use a variety of materials (clay, foam, putty, food, straws etc. )Points for the project are as follows:-Pest Awareness Poster: 25 points-Pest Model: pointsTotal Points: 40 points
28List of possible insects: Harmful:-Scales-Mealybugs-Aphids-Whiteflies-Lacebugs-Thrips-Caterpillars-Grasshoppers-Katydids-BeetlesBeneficial:-Ladybeetles-Praying Mantids-Assassin Bugs-Lacewings-Parasitic Wasps-Spiders