2 Bedding Plant Production Categories (Click to view) BegoniasGeraniumsImpatiensMarigoldsPansiesPetuniasPotential ProblemsMediaTransplanting
3 Begonias Grow 6”-12” high with pink, red, or white flowers Spaced 6”-10” apart and need direct sunlightMay be propagated from seeds or cuttings and transplanted
4 BegoniasTime from seeding to market in packs is about 14 weeks (16 weeks in pots)Small seeds should be lightly pressed into surface of germinating mediumGermination requires light and degree F medium temperatureCan be propagated by stem cuttingsPlants do well in full sun to shade
5 GeraniumsGrow 12”-18”Dark green leaves are rounded with scalloped edgesFlowers are red, white, or pink and grow on a stemFlowers have many petals in a cluster shaped like a ball
6 Geraniums About 2/3 of all geraniums sold are red Direct sunlight is needed10”-12” spacing is neededMay be propagated from seeds or cuttings and transplanted
7 GeraniumsTime from seeding to market in packs is about 14 weeks (16 weeks in pots)Seeds are large and have to be scarified because of hard seed coatsSeed suppliers usually scarify before packing for sale. Seeds should be coved with 1/8 inch of mediumMedium should be about 75 degrees F.
8 Impatiens Grow 6”-18” high and have succulent stems Lance shaped leavesFlower colors include pink, lavender, white, red, purple, salmon, and coral.
9 Impatiens Flowers are small and round with five petals One flower petal is shaped like a tube that protrudes from the underside of the flowerSpaced 12”-18” and needs partial sun or shadeMay be propagated from seeds or cuttings
10 Impatiens Time from seeding to market in packs is about 8 weeks Seeds should be placed on surface of medium and covered lightlyGermination requires light and temperature of degrees FHave been the number one bedding crop for many yearsGrow well in shade
11 Marigolds Grow from 6” to 4’ tall Orange or yellow flowers have a pungent aromaSpaced 6”-12” apart and grow best in full sunlightGrown from seeds and transplanted
12 MarigoldsTime from seeding to market in packs is about 9 weeks (10 weeks in pots)Seeds should be covered by ¼” of germinating mediumMedium should be degrees FOutdoor plants should grow in full sun for best qualityVery few cultural problems
13 Pansies Grow from 6-8” tall Moon-faced flowers in many colors (blue, purple, yellow, white, pink, red)Spaced 6-8” in full sunGrown from seeds and transplantedCool-season bedding plant
14 PansiesTime from seeding to market in packs is about 12 weeks (13 weeks in pots)Seeds should be planted on surface of medium and covered with paper to keep darkGermination medium should be 70 degrees FahrenheitGrow in full sun
15 Petunias Grow from 6”-18” tall Flowers have a tube-shaped base Colors include red, pink, white, blue, and pastelsSpaced 10”-12”Grown from seeds and transplanted
16 PetuniasTime from seeding to market in packs is about 10 weeks (11 weeks in pots)Sow seeds on surface of mediumSeeds are very small (285,000 per ounce)Need light and degrees F germinating medium temperatureMany different types and colorsOne of top five annuals in the U.S. for over 100 years
17 Potential Problems (Click to view) Cultural DisordersGermination ProblemsFertilization ProblemsUneven growthTall and spindly growthDiseasesSeedlings falling overLower leaves brown, rotting, and dryingInsectsPlants missingHoles in leaves or plant parts missing
18 Cultural-Germination Problems CausesImproper temperaturesOver-watering or underwateringChemical residues in mediumSeed planting depthLow quality seeds
19 Cultural-Germination Problems Correction or PreventionUse high-quality seedsPlant at proper depthUse medium with no chemical residuesMaintain proper temperaturesMaintain proper moisture levels
20 Cultural-Fertilization Problems CausesLack of nutrientsRoot injuryImproper pH of mediumExcessive fertilizationManganese Deficiency
21 Cultural-Fertilization Problems Correction or PreventionTest soil or mediaApply correct amounts and kinds of nutrientsUse pH correcting materials
22 Cultural-Uneven Growth CausesPoor mixing of mediumUneven moisture levelsUnlevel flatsPoor grading of seedlings
23 Cultural-Uneven Growth Correction or PreventionProper mixing of mediaEven wateringGrading seedlings by size and qualityPlacing flats level
24 Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth CausesToo much nitrogen fertilizerOverwateringLow light intensity (too much shade)High temperatures
25 Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth Correction or PreventionUse the correct amount of nitrogenReduce frequency of wateringLower temperatureProvide more lightUse growth retardant such as B-Nine SP
26 Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over CausesStem rotDamping-off
27 Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over Correction or PreventionUse sterilized mediaApply fungicidesImprove air circulation around plants
37 Commercially Prepared Mixes Sterile (no insects, weeds, or diseases)Jiffy-MixRedi-EarthPro-MixSunshine MixMetro MixOther brands also available
38 Containers Flat-plastic tray used for planting seeds Cell packs-several small cell-like pots of plastic molded together used for planting one or two seeds per cellSold without transplanting to another containerPeat pots can be planted directly in the soilJiffy 7 pellet can be planted directly in the soil
39 Containers Plastic pots of various sizes and shapes Clay pots of various sizes and shapesStyrofoam pots of various sizesHanging basketsStandard pot is the same width at the top as it is highAzalea pot is ¾ as high as its top diameter or width
40 Transplanting Instructions Seedlings should have true leaves not just seed leaves or cotyledons before being transplanted. Waiting too long to transplant causes shock to transplanted seedlings.
41 Transplanting Instructions Hold plants by their leaves. Do not hold by the stem because a badly bruised stem will cause the seedling to die.The media may need to be loosened with a pot label to keep from breaking stem and roots. Do not shake medium off roots.
42 Transplanting Instructions Use a dibble or other means to make a hole for the transplanting seedling.
43 Transplanting Instructions 5. Plant seedling in the media in the new container slightly deeper than it grew in the flat and gently press media around roots.
44 Transplanting Instructions 6. Water gently to settle media around roots.
45 Transplanting Instructions Keep moist for a few days to prevent wilting and dying.Grow and harden-off before selling.