DPS/SSM/OEA3 Justice Policy Institute Report July 2007 19992004 %Crime index Violent crime Cumberland2547259-89.8+7.3+ 17.6% Wake3017535743.3-32.4-21.3
DPS/SSM/OEA4 In 1927 Chicago had 1,313 gangs (1) Most of these were mixed (40%), Polish (16%), Italian (11%), Irish (9%), or Afro- American (7%), and there were even 7 Swedish gangs. The link between gangs and organized crime was already under study. (1) F. Thrasher
DPS/SSM/OEA5 In 2006, an ILO study on global youth employment trends found that 21% of young people (aged 16 to 29) in Latin America neither attended school nor worked. That same study showed that the unemployment rate for young adults was 2.8.
DPS/SSM/OEA6 tensions People feel insecure Prevention Investment in prevention Lack of security, safety Youth are more exposed Police No quick solutions Law enforcement Cost of Violence Democratic stability Fostered by environment Justice system ( % of persons in pretrial detention)
DPS/SSM/OEA7 the project… 7 consultants 7 countries (1st stage) Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, USA.
DPS/SSM/OEA8 How do the consultants view gangs? Basically urban, A public security and safety issue Linked to adolescents and youth, although they are a minority in i.e. violent gangs or maras Arise from conditions of poverty and exclusion Linked to a lack of opportunities provided by the government, the market, and the community Originate among children or adolescents who come from dysfunctional families and are looking for an identity, protection, sense of belonging, and power, With a clear gender bias towards male domination, ranging from 2.5 - 1 to 9 - 1 Ethnically heterogeneous, but Latin Americans and Afro-descendents predominate over White Anglo-Saxons (in the case of the USA) Linked to many national homicides Linked increasingly to trafficking in drugs, arms, persons, and other crimes related to organized crime.
DPS/SSM/OEA9 DEFINITION YOUTH GANGS represent a spontaneous effort by children and young people to create, where it does not exist, an urban space in society that is adapted to their needs, where they can exercise the rights that their families, government, and communities do not offer them. Arising out of extreme poverty, exclusion, and a lack of opportunities, gangs try to gain their rights and meet their needs by organizing themselves without supervision and developing their own rules, and by securing for themselves a territory and a set of symbols that gives meaning to their membership in the group. This endeavor to exercise their citizenship is, in many cases, a violation of their own and others rights, and frequently generates violence and crime in a vicious circle that perpetuates their original exclusion. This is why they cannot reverse the situation that they were born into. Since it is primarily a male phenomenon, female gang members suffer more intensively from gender discrimination and the inequalities inherent in the dominant culture.
DPS/SSM/OEA10 The path to adult gangs is determined by : - A gradual increase in the age of gang members within the gangs - The deportation of gang members - Alliances with gangs in other countries - Transnational adult gangs
DPS/SSM/OEA11 Categories Based on structural criteria such as size, gender, ethnic composition and ages, life span, territoriality, and criminality, as well as on criteria of origin, objectives, operating methods, and evolution, the following categories are proposed: Scavenger gangs Transgressor gangs Violent gangs Criminal gangs Female gangs
SizeGenderCompositionAge TerritorialityCriminality Scavenger (short-lived) 15–40Male, with reluctant acceptanc e of female members Heterogeneous 13-18Secondary school and neighborhood Confrontations with other rival school gangs outside the schools and neighboring streets, extortion, intimidation, and other criminal acts, usually minor offenses, within and around their neighborhood and school. Transgressor 40 –80Male to female ratio: 5-1 Heterogeneous, with mostly Latin American and Afro-descendents (case of USA) 10-18Neighborhood, since no longer in school Constant protection and violent defense against the rival gang. They use violence to impose control over the territory that they claim as theirs. They are involved in criminal activities within and outside their territory. Violent 100 – 500 Male to female ratio: up to 9-1 Homogenous (according to the gang). Primarily Hispanic. In USA, also Afro- Americans and Asians. 15-30 and over Neighborhoods dominated by cliques The same as the previous group, but with a greater tendency towards homicide. Criminal 50 – 200Made up mostly of males Homogenous (according to the gang). Primarily Hispanic. In USA, also Afro- Americans and Asians. 18-30 and over Their activities are not limited to territories Various organized criminal activities using sophisticated weapons. Crimes include trafficking in drugs, persons, robbery, kidnapping, extortion, pandering, and murder.
DPS/SSM/OEA13 OriginObjectivesOperationActivities Evolution Scavenger Rivalry among schools Not specified Leadership, with no organization or structure, crime is not part of their reason for being Sports, dances, movies. Independent of others, initial stage, may evolve into transgressor gangs Transgressor They arise in situations of exclusion, are organized without supervision, develop their own rules and membership criteria (RITES) To give meaning to a life without meaning They have standards, rules, a ranking, and initiation rites. They use drugs and carry arms Defense of their territory; they sometimes get involved in art and music, and may have a website. Secondary stage: they use the streets as a means of survival, they are led by members who grew up in them. Violent They arise in a similar context as the previous group, but are more advanced in committing crimes To give meaning to a life without meaning, and look into the possibility of profitable illegal activities Same as previous group but more complex and with connections with other gangs Virtually none Third stage: These are transgressor gangs that do not break up but consolidate, and they may use various names. Criminal Adult organization linked to ORGANIZED CRIME Money, reputation, and a power parallel to the power that excluded them Same as previous group, but with training, discipline, organization, and logistics in their criminal activities Virtually noneFinal stage: They are on a destructive path, they end up in prison or have a violent end.
DPS/SSM/OEA14 Gang members violate the rights of third parties at the same time that third parties violate the gang members rights
DPS/SSM/OEA15 INTERVENTIONS LEVEL OF VIOLENCE OR CRIME HOMICIDES ROBBERIES (OF BANKS, ETC...) DRUG-TRAFFICKING HOMICIDES MINOR OFFENSES THEFTS FIGHTS: ASSAULTS SOCIAL DISTURBANCE CONFLICTS- VIOLENCE VICT./WITNESS ORGANIZED CRIME GANGS (JUVENILE) CLIQUES [ BARRAS] JUVENILE GROUPS FAMILY–SOCIO- ECONOMIC SURROUNDING EL COURSE OF VIOLENCE (Concha-Eastman, 2001) PRIMARY 2ary. LAW 2ary-3ary RAPES ROBBERIES WOUNDS
DPS/SSM/OEA16 SCAVENGER TRANSGRESSOR VIOLENT CRIMINAL Confrontations in schools, intimidation, extortion,. etc. PROTECTION AND DEFENSE AGAINST RIVAL GANGS, CONTROL OF TERRITORY, INVOLVEMENT IN VIOLENT ACTIVITIES TENDENCY TOWARD VIOLENT CRIME ORGANIZED CRIME
DPS/SSM/OEA18 INITIATIVES FOR ALL CATEGORIES OF GANGS, IT IS NECESSARY TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT TARGETED PUBLIC POLICIES, BASED ON: -CITIZEN PARTICIPATION - JUSTICE SYSTEM THAT ENSURES PROMPT AND FAIR JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS - MEASURES DESIGNED TO ENHANCE SOCIAL CONFIDENCE IN THE COMMUNITIES - UP-TO-DATE LEGISLATION - INFORMATION SYSTEM - LINK WITH PUBLIC POLICIES - A GUIDING INTERSECTORAL INSTITUTIONALITY ON THE SUBJECT - AN ETHICAL CONTEXT OF RESPECT FOR, AND GUARANTEE AND PROMOTION OF, HUMAN RIGHTS
DPS/SSM/OEA19 What does a gang offer me…? What should we do…? A space Protection Friendship Running risks Access to money Sex To be somebody Try to cover these spaces Invest heavily in youth Streamline judicial processes Separate the approach of adults and adolescents Work with the media
DPS/SSM/OEA20 preventionrehabilitationcontrol Scavenger gangs -Open school -Workshops -Self-management movements -Sports networks -The media (videos, CE) - Create opportunities -Reinsertion and remedial courses in school -Workshops -Job training -Agreements with businesses - Encourage alternatives to deprival of freedom -Presence of specialized police -Specialized training for police officers in youth matters -Appropriate records Transgressor gangs - Self-management movements - Workshops -Evening and weekend activities -Formal education -Workshops -Job training -Agreements with businesses -Develop strategies for deportees --Encourage alternative measures -Workshops for judges, prosecutors, and police -Promote a balanced treatment of the subject by the media Violent gangs -Develop public spaces with artificial light -Preventive police -Police intelligence -Different categories should not be mixed among detainees -Workshops -Role of churches -Police intelligence -Workshops for judges, prosecutors, and police - Presence of specialized police officers Criminal gangs -Campaigns - Increased exchange of information and coordination among countries -Special detention centers -Workshops -Little contact with the outside world -Police intelligence -Workshops for judges, prosecutors, and police