Presentation on theme: "Forensic Victimology 2nd Edition Chapter Sixteen: Sex Trafficking."— Presentation transcript:
Forensic Victimology 2nd Edition Chapter Sixteen: Sex Trafficking
Sex Trafficking Sex trafficking involves a sex act for profit induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform the act is under 18 years-of-age. This definition applies to most sex workers - anyone who works in the sex industry, performing sexual acts for money.
Sex Trafficking Not all sex workers are necessarily being trafficked, though many are. There are many different kinds of sex workers. Type of sex workers include: –Brothels –Escorts/Call girls –Strollers –Strip clubs
Statistics Regarding incidents of trafficking: 83% of human trafficking involves sex trafficking 48.5% forced prostitution; 32% child sex trafficking Regarding suspects in confirmed human trafficking incidents: Males were dominant but not exclusive Most were not white; they were predominantly Hispanic Regarding victims in confirmed human trafficking incidents: Females were by far more common than males Most were either Hispanic or white
Statistics Victim age is of particular concern, as many prostitutes start work at a young age. With respect to these underage victims: 55% of girls living on the streets in the U.S. engaged in prostitution 75% of the girls engaged in prostitution work for a pimp 76% of the transactions for sex with underage girls are conducted over the Internet The average pimp can make between $150,000 - $200,000 per year from each girl
Predispositions In many ways, it can be argued that a history of abuse leads to a predisposition to become victimized by sex traffickers. –Being the child victim of abuse or sexual assault pushes kids out of their homes early and into sex work. –Some run away from their homes or from foster care, and others are simply kicked out by a parent that no longer wants to care for them.
Recruitment Recruitment refers to the means by which sex traffickers acquire sex workers. This is not something that happens by accident. It is generally the result of a planned con, fraud, or even a kidnapping.
Recruitment The Con –Traffickers who con their victims do so in a variety of ways that have remained unchanged over the generations. –Examples include the following: The sex trafficker may send a girl in to befriend the target victim and recruit them. The sex trafficker may coerce or reward the girls in their stable: for recruiting straight girlfriends.
Recruitment Indentured Servitude –An indentured servant is a person with limited means that is transported to a new location, presumably for better opportunities, and works off the cost of their transportation, food, clothing, lodging and any other necessities during the term of their indenture. Kidnapping –In cases where less confrontational methods of recruitment may not be successful they may kidnap their victims.
Retention The cycle of dependence retains victims, even when they have the opportunity to leave. –The primary element in this cycle is fear and once initiated, it is hard to break free. Other tools of the sex trafficker, with respect to controlling their victims, include: –Extortion; –Threats of violence; –physical abuse; and –Drugs.
Sex Workers and Sexual Assault Trafficked sex workers are victims of rape. And their victimization is essentially unending, so long as they are unable to escape their situation. There is often a personal history involved. Many of these girls will have been raped as children, possibly by members of their own family. Many of these girls will have been raped by their traffickers. Rape is an occupational hazard for trafficked sex workers. Every new client is a potential rapist.
Easy Prey Sex offenders frequently target those who work in the sex trade. They are easy prey for both sophisticated and inexperienced offenders alike. –Illegal sex workers far less likely to report any attack to police, due to their complicity in criminal activity (e.g., prostitution, drugs). –Sex workers are also targeted because of the vulnerabilities inherent things they are willing to do with any potential customer
Voluntary Sex Workers There are many adult sex workers who participate in the sex trade voluntarily. There are two things that police investigators must remember about the voluntary sex worker: 1.They must be taken seriously when reporting a sex crime. 2.They are an invaluable source of street intelligence.
The Law Enforcement Response The law enforcement response to sex trafficking has been, generally, to focus on efforts to arrest the trafficked victims. –The result of arresting the trafficked sex worker can be secondary victimization; they may learn that the system does not recognize them as a victim, and that their trafficker has both power and immunity. Treating them with respect is the first and only place to start. From there, and investigation of the facts can begin and the truth of their circumstances learned.