Presentation on theme: "The Evolution of Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Evolution of Psychology Chapter 1The Evolution of Psychology
2 The Development of Psychology: From Speculation to Science Prior to 1879Physiology and philosophy scholars studying questions about the mindWilhelm Wundt ( ) University of Leipzig, GermanyCampaigned to make psychology an independent disciplineEstablished the first laboratory for the study of psychology in 1879Psychology was bornPrior to 1879 psychology did not exist as an independent field of studyPsychological questions arose on a secondary basis in the fields of Physiology and PhilosophyWilhelm Wundt campaigned to make psychology an independent disciplineBrought the scientific methods of physiology to bear on philosophical questionsDeveloped the first laboratory in psychology at the University of Leipzig in 1879
3 Wilhelm Wundt’s International Influence Leipzig, the place to study psychologyGraduates of Wundt’s program set up new labs across Europe and North AmericaG.Stanley Hall ( ), Johns Hopkins UniversityEstablished the first psychology laboratory in the U.S. in 1883Between 1883 and 1893, 24 new laboratories in North AmericaMany young scholars came to Leipzig to study under WundtWundt’s students, trained in the scientific study of the mind, dispersed across Germany and AmericaThe first research lab in the U.S. was established by G. Stanley Hall ( ) (who studied under Wundt briefly) at John’s Hopkins UniversityBetween 1883 and 1893, 24 new psychological laboratories sprang up in the U.S. and CanadaWhile psychology was born in Germany, its period of largest growth began in the United States
5 The Battle of the “Schools” in the U. S. : Structuralism vs The Battle of the “Schools” in the U.S.: Structuralism vs. FunctionalismTwo intellectual schools of thought regarding the science of psychologyStructrualism – led by Edward TitchenerFocused on analyzing consciousness into basic elementsIntrospection – careful, systematic observations of one’s own conscious experienceFunctionalism – led by William JamesFocused on investigating the function or purpose of consciousnessLed to investigation of mental testing, developmental patterns, and sex differencesMay have attracted the first women into the field of psychologyTwo intellectual schools of thought regarding the science of psychology fought it out in the academic arena, with the fight led by Edward Titchener in the STRUCTURALISM corner and William James in the FUNCTIONALISM corner.The structuralists believed that psychology should be about analyzing consciousness into its basic elements, just as physicists were studying how matter was made up of basic particles…to do this, Titchener and his followers relied on introspection, a process by which a person makes careful, systematic self-observations of one’s own conscious experience.The functionalists thought this missed the point. James and his followers thought psychology should be about investigating the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
7 Who Won the Battle?Most historians give the edge to James and the functionalistsToday, psychologists are not really categorized as structuralists or functionalistsApplied psychology and Behaviorism - descendants of functionalismBehaviorism - early 1900’sThe next major school of thought to influence the development of psychologyProbably the functionalists, although the war changed as both schools of thought gradually faded awayToday, psychologists really aren’t categorized as functionalists or structuralists, but the modern fields of applied psychology and behaviorism are direct descendants of functionalismBasically, the Battle of the “Schools” was only the prelude to numerous fundamental controversies in psychologyIt was the advent of behaviorism in the early 1900’s that was the next major school of thought to fundamentally alter the course of psychology
8 Behaviorism: Redefining Psychology John B. Watson ( ): United StatesFounder of BehaviorismPsychology = scientific study of behaviorB.F. Skinner – No freewillBehavior = overt or observable responses or activitiesRadical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behaviorStudy of consciousness abandonedJohn B. Watson ( ) founded the behaviorist school of thoughtBasic tenet: Only observable behavior should be studied in scientific psychologyBehavior, according to Watson, refers to an observable or overt response or activity of an organismWatson’s ideas radically changed the landscape of psychologyGive up consciousness and have a science of behavior
9 BEHAVIORALWe should look for the causes of our behavior in our environment rather than in our biology or in our minds.They have made their greatest contribution by giving us a detailed understanding of how the environment affects learning – especially through rewards and punishments.They only care about behaviors that impair our living, and attempt to change them.To change behaviors, we have to recondition the client.This was the approach started by John Watson and B.F. Skinner.Advantages? Disadvantages?If you bit your fingernails when you were nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming you down, but rather focus on how to stop you from biting your nails.
10 Sigmund Freud and the Concept of the Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud ( ): AustriaFounded Psychoanalytic (Psychodynamic) school of thoughtEmphasis on unconscious processes influencing behaviorUnconscious = thoughts, memories, and desires that are outside conscious awarenessFreud was an Austrian physician who founded psychoanalytic psychologyHis work with people with psychological problems led him to believe that people are influenced by unconscious forces…that is, thoughts, memories, and desires that are outside conscious awareness
11 PSYCHODYNAMICThe term psychodynamic comes from the belief that the mind (psyche) is a reservoir of energy (dynamics).We are motivated primarily by the energy of irrational desires generated in our unconscious minds.We repress many of our true feelings in our unconscious mind and are not aware of them. In order to get better, we must bring forward the feelings we have in our unconscious so that they can be dealt with.Sigmund Freud is the best known representative of this approach.The mind is a sort of mental boiler that holds the rising pressure of unconscious sexual and destructive desires, along with memories of traumatic events.Stressed early childhood experiences determine later behaviorNegative view of humanity (aggression, sex)Use dreams, hypnosis, inkblots, Freudian slips to access the unconsciousIf a man has intimacy issues and cannot form relationships with others, what do you think someone from this perspective may think?Perhaps they may delve into the man’s unconscious and discover that he was bullied when he were younger. The bullying may have caused fear in getting close to others.
12 Freud’s Ideas: Controversy and Influence Behavior is influenced by the unconsciousUnconscious conflict related to sexuality plays a central role in behaviorControversial notions caused debate/resistanceSignificant influence on the field of psychologyFreud believed that unconscious conflict, particularly with regard to sexual urges, plays a central role in behavior.This was scandalous and offensive for several reasons…first, if we are influenced by forces we are not aware of, how can we be masters of our own minds? Where does free will come in? Second, in an era of sexual repression, the emphasis on sexuality was quite upsetting to many people.The controversial nature of Freud’s ideas caused great resistance in the field of psychology, and his ideas were not well received among academic circles.Despite of (or maybe even because of) the controversy, Freud’s ideas moved into the main stream, influencing thought in psychology, medicine, art, and literature.
14 WHO WAS THE FOUNDER OF PSYCHOLOGY? REVIEW:WHO WAS THE FOUNDER OF PSYCHOLOGY?WUNDTWHO STARTED THE FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE?JAMESWHAT EARLY PERSPECTIVE DID TITCHENER START?STRUCTURALISM
15 WHO STARTED THE BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE? REVIEW:WHO STARTED THE BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE?WATSONWHAT IS THE MAJOR THEME OF THE BEHAVIORIST PERPECTIVE?THE ENVIRONMENT CONTROLS YOUNAME ANOTHER MAJOR FIGURE IN THE BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE?B.F. SKINNERWHAT IS THE MAJOR THEME OF THE PSYCHOANALITIC PERSPECTIVE?UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVATION
16 HUMANISTIC Carl Rogers founder, Abraham Maslow also a big name Emerged as a revolt against behaviorism and psychoanalytic approachesThis perspective peaked in the late 1960s and ’70s, so it focused on spirituality and free will.Our actions are hugely influenced by our self-concept and by our need for personal growth and fulfillment. We have to strive to be the best we can be (“self-actualization”).Humanists emphasize the positive side of our nature: human ability, growth, and potential.Believe in the inherent goodness of human beingsEmphasize the free will people have to make choices affecting their lives, and press psychology to take a greater interest in feelings and the self-concept.Happiness is defined by the distance between our “self-concept” and our “ideal self”.Unconditional Positive Regard
18 COGNITIVE CHANGE THOUGHTS FIRST, BEHAVIOR WILL FOLLOW You are what you thinkOur thoughts and actions arise from the way we interpret our experiences.Concerned with the processes of thinking and memory, attention, imagery, creativity, problem solving, and language use.Discuss the mental processes which determine what humans can perceive, or communicate, as well as how they think.Your mind is like a computer
19 BIOLOGICALSometimes also referred to as biopsychological or the neuroscience approach.Emphasizes how our physical makeup and the operation of our brains influence our personality, preferences, behavior patterns, and abilities. In other words, all of our feelings and behaviors have an organic root.Search for the causes of behavior in heredity, the nervous system, the endocrine (hormone) system, and disease.More likely than other views to recommend medication
20 EvolutionaryA variation on the biological view that draws on Darwin’s ideas.Suggests that many human traits arise from hereditary characteristics established in our remote ancestral past.Our genetic makeup – including our most deeply ingrained behaviors – were shaped by the conditions our ancestors faced thousands of years ago.In other words, we behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors; thus, those behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors’ survival.Advantages? Disadvantages?
21 Focus on the idea of social influence. SOCIOCULTURALEven in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures.Focus on the idea of social influence.As a complex blend of human language, beliefs, customs, values, and traditions, culture exerts powerful influences on all of us.Much of our behavior and our feelings are dictated by the culture we live in.
22 Contemporary Psychology: Cultural Diversity Ethnocentrism – viewing one’s own group as superior and as the standard for judgingHistorically: middle and upper class white males studying middle and upper class white males1980’s – increased interest in how cultural factors influence behaviorgrowing global interdependenceincreased cultural diversityThe vast majority of psychological research seeking to identify general principles of behavior that could be applied to all of humanity has been conducted in the United States, by white middle and upper class males studying white middle and upper class males. Little attention was paid, historically, to how this research might apply to non-Western cultures, ethnic minorities, or women.In the late 80’s, however, a movement toward incorporating cultural factors into research and theory emerged…this was in part due to sociopolitical forces (civil rights movement, women’s movement, etc.), but most notably to the advances in international communication and increased global interdependence, as well as the increasingly diverse multicultural make-up of the Western world.
24 Psychology Today: A Thriving Science and Profession Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.Research: Seven major areas - developmental, social, experimental, physiological, cognitive, personality, and psychometrics.Applied Psychology: Four major areas - clinical, counseling, educational/school, and industrial/organizational.Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.The seven major research areas in psychology are: developmental, social, experimental, physiological, cognitive, personality, and psychometrics.The four major applied areas of specialization are: clinical, counseling, educational/school, and industrial/organizational.