Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 The evolution of Psychology. Key Terms for Quiz Turn to page 34 You need to know Key Terms and Key People You will have a quiz over chapter."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1 The evolution of Psychology
Key Terms for Quiz Turn to page 34 You need to know Key Terms and Key People You will have a quiz over chapter 1 and 2 key terms and people
How Psychology Developed Term Psychology comes from –Psyche meaning soul –Logos meaning study of subject In the 18 th century the term psychology was coined and meat the study of the mind
Psychology is born Psychology began to develop in other disciplines such as philosophy and physiology German Professor Wilhelm Wundt campaigned to make psychology an independent study. In 1879 Wundt established the first lab to study psychology
Wundt 1879 is the birthdate of psychology 1881 Wundt established the first journal devoted to studying psychology Psychology’s primary focus at this time was consciousness-the awareness of immediate experience. Psychology originally focused on the mind and mental processes.
Other psychologists G. Stanley Hall was an important contributor to American Psychology. He established America’s first research lab in psychology at John Hopkins University in He helped establish the American Psychological Association (APA) Today the APA is the world’s largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology with over 155,000 members
Structuralism vs functionalism Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward Titchener who taught at Cornell University Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze and investigate how these elements are related. –Most of their work concerned sensation, vision, hearing, and touch. They depended on the method of introspection or the careful systematic self observation of one’s own conscious experience
Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. William James a professor at Harvard led this movement and wrote one of the most influential books in psychology, the Principles of Psychology in 1890
Functionalism Investigates the functions rather than the structure of consciousness James argues consciousness is a consistent flow of thoughts He termed the phrase “stream of consciousness” He was interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the real world around them. Instead of focusing on sensation and perception, functionalist began to investigate mental testing, patterns of development in children, the effectiveness of education, and behavioral differences between the sexes.
Behaviorism Founded by John B. Watson Behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior Watson was proposing that psychologist abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviors they could observe directly Believed as scientists they could study anything that people say or do, but not study scientifically thoughts, wishes, and feelings. Big debate: nature vs nurture Used behaviorism to try to answer genetic inheritance (nature) or environment and experience (nurture)
Famous Behaviorist Pavlov—studies that dogs could be trained to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus such as a tone Activity page 7 Concept check 1.1 answer all 3 questions quickly.
Freud Austrian Physician Treated people troubled by psychological problems such as irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties with a procedure he called psychoanalysis Dealt with unconscious, which contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on your behavior
This psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscous determinants of behavior
Skinner One of the most influential American psychologists He believed organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes. He once even trained pigeons to play ping pong! His principles are now used widely in schools, prisons, and mental hospitals
Humanists So far we have discussed behaviorism and psychoanalytical theory Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for growth. Turn to page 10 to look at different viewpoints
Areas of psychology Developmental-looks at human development across the life span Social-focuses on interpersonal behavior and the rose of social forces in governing behavior Experimental-focuses on sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation, and emotion Physiological- examines the influence of genetic factors on behavior Cognitive- focuses on higher mental processes such as memory, language, problem solving Personality- factors that shape your personality Psychometrics- involved in designing tests to assess personality, intelligence, and wide range of abilities.
Types of Professions Clinical Psychology-makes up 69% of the profession. Provides therapy and concerned with diagnosis of people with severe problems Counseling 15% helps people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity Educational and School psychology 9% curriculum testing, achievement testing Industrial and organizational psychology 6% running human resource departments, working to improve staff morale