Presentation on theme: "The evolution of Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1The evolution of Psychology Chapter 1The evolution of Psychology
2Key Terms for Quiz Turn to page 34 You need to know Key Terms and Key PeopleYou will have a quiz over chapter 1 and 2 key terms and people
3How Psychology Developed Term Psychology comes fromPsyche meaning soulLogos meaning study of subjectIn the 18th century the term psychology was coined and meat the study of the mind
4Psychology is bornPsychology began to develop in other disciplines such as philosophy and physiologyGerman Professor Wilhelm Wundt campaigned to make psychology an independent study.In 1879 Wundt established the first lab to study psychology
5Wundt 1879 is the birthdate of psychology 1881 Wundt established the first journal devoted to studying psychologyPsychology’s primary focus at this time was consciousness-the awareness of immediate experience.Psychology originally focused on the mind and mental processes.
6Other psychologistsG. Stanley Hall was an important contributor to American Psychology.He established America’s first research lab in psychology at John Hopkins University in 1883.He helped establish the American Psychological Association (APA)Today the APA is the world’s largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology with over 155,000 members
7Structuralism vs functionalism Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward Titchener who taught at Cornell UniversityStructuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze and investigate how these elements are related.Most of their work concerned sensation, vision, hearing, and touch. They depended on the method of introspection or the careful systematic self observation of one’s own conscious experience
8Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.William James a professor at Harvard led this movement and wrote one of the most influential books in psychology, the Principles of Psychology in 1890
9FunctionalismInvestigates the functions rather than the structure of consciousnessJames argues consciousness is a consistent flow of thoughtsHe termed the phrase “stream of consciousness”He was interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the real world around them.Instead of focusing on sensation and perception, functionalist began to investigate mental testing, patterns of development in children, the effectiveness of education, and behavioral differences between the sexes.
10Behaviorism Founded by John B. Watson Behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviorWatson was proposing that psychologist abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviors they could observe directlyBelieved as scientists they could study anything that people say or do, but not study scientifically thoughts, wishes, and feelings.Big debate: nature vs nurtureUsed behaviorism to try to answer genetic inheritance (nature) or environment and experience (nurture)
11Famous BehavioristPavlov—studies that dogs could be trained to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus such as a toneActivity page 7 Concept check 1.1 answer all 3 questions quickly.
12Freud Austrian Physician Treated people troubled by psychological problems such as irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties with a procedure he called psychoanalysisDealt with unconscious, which contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on your behavior
13This psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscous determinants of behavior
14Skinner One of the most influential American psychologists He believed organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes.He once even trained pigeons to play ping pong!His principles are now used widely in schools, prisons, and mental hospitals
15HumanistsSo far we have discussed behaviorism and psychoanalytical theoryHumanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for growth.Turn to page 10 to look at different viewpoints
16Areas of psychologyDevelopmental-looks at human development across the life spanSocial-focuses on interpersonal behavior and the rose of social forces in governing behaviorExperimental-focuses on sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation, and emotionPhysiological- examines the influence of genetic factors on behaviorCognitive- focuses on higher mental processes such as memory, language, problem solvingPersonality- factors that shape your personalityPsychometrics- involved in designing tests to assess personality, intelligence, and wide range of abilities.
17Types of ProfessionsClinical Psychology-makes up 69% of the profession. Provides therapy and concerned with diagnosis of people with severe problemsCounseling 15% helps people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severityEducational and School psychology 9% curriculum testing, achievement testingIndustrial and organizational psychology 6% running human resource departments, working to improve staff morale