Presentation on theme: "3 People and Ideas on the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259 B.C."— Presentation transcript:
13 People and Ideas on the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259 B.C. QUIT3CHAPTERPeople and Ideason the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259 B.C.Chapter OverviewTime LineSECTION1Indo-European MigrationsMAPSECTION2Roots of Hinduism and BuddhismSECTION3Seafaring Traders Extend BoundariesSECTION4The Origins of JudaismGRAPHVisual Summary
23 People and Ideas on the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259 B.C. HOME3CHAPTERPeople and Ideason the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259 B.C.Chapter OverviewMigrations and trade networks carry new ideas, languages, and cultures throughout the Mediterranean and as far east as South Asia. Three major world religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism, emerge during this period.
33 People and Ideas on the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259 B.C. HOME Time Line CHAPTERPeople and Ideason the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259 B.C.Time Line1100 B.C. Phoenicians begin to dominate Mediterranean trade.2000 B.C. Hittites migrate to Anatolia.3500 B.C.259 B.C.1500 B.C. Aryans invade India.814 B.C. Carthage founded as a Phoenician trade center.
4Indo-European Migrations Key Idea 1 HOME1Indo-EuropeanMigrationsKey IdeaMigrations of Indo-Europeans into parts of Europe and South Asia introduce new ideas and languages and result in a blend of new and old cultures.OverviewAssessment
5Indo-European Migrations Overview 1 • Indo-Europeans • steppes HOME1Indo-EuropeanMigrationsTERMS & NAMESOverview• Indo-Europeans• steppes• migration• Hittites• Anatolia• Aryans• Vedas• Brahmin• caste• MahabharataMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWIndo-European peoples migrated into Europe, India, and Southwest Asia and interacted with peoples living there.Half the people living today speak languages that stem from the original Indo-European languages.Assessment
6Indo-European Migrations 1 1 HOME1Indo-EuropeanMigrationsSection1Assessment1. List the names of some modern languages that stem from Indo-European roots.Indo-EuropeanFrenchSpanishEnglishGreekSwedishHindiRussianPersiancontinued . . .
7Indo-European Migrations 1 1 HOME1Indo-EuropeanMigrationsSection1Assessment2. What important contributions did the Aryan invaders make to the culture and way of life in India? THINK ABOUT• roles in society• religion• literatureANSWERPossible Responses:• Roles in society: Aryan caste system ruled India for over 3,000 years.• Religion: Aryan deities of the Vedas entered the Hindu religion.• Literature: The Vedas, Upanishads, and Mahabharata are great literary works with Aryan subjects or themes.continued . . .
8Indo-European Migrations 1 1 HOME1Indo-EuropeanMigrationsSection1Assessment3. For what environmental reasons might the Indo-Europeans have migrated? THINK ABOUT• weather• occupational needs• healthANSWERPossible Responses:• Weather: Grazing lands may have dried up.• Occupational needs: Their population may have grown too large to feed.• Health: They may have been escaping from diseases or invaders.End of Section 1
9Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism Key Idea 2 HOME2Roots of Hinduismand BuddhismMAPKey IdeaHinduism has no one founder but promotes a unified world view and a rigid caste system. Buddhism’s founder, Siddhartha Gautama, preaches the way of moderation and rejects the Aryan caste system.OverviewAssessment
10Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism Overview 2 • reincarnation • karma HOME2Roots of Hinduismand BuddhismMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• reincarnation• karma• Jainism• Siddhartha Gautama• enlightenment• nirvanaMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe religious beliefs of the Vedic Age eventually developed into Hinduism and Buddhism.Almost one-fifth of the world’s people today practice one of these two religions.Assessment
11Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism 2 2 HOME2Roots of Hinduismand BuddhismMAPSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare Hindu and Buddhist beliefs and practices.Hinduism onlyBuddhism onlyBothReincarnationCyclical view of historyBelief in a state of enlightenment (Hindu moksha, Buddhist nirvana)Caste systemAnimal sacrificeThe Middle Way (Eightfold Path)Four Noble Truthscontinued . . .
12Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism 2 2 HOME2Roots of Hinduismand BuddhismMAPSection2Assessment2. How might the belief in reincarnation provide a form of social control? THINK ABOUT• karma• the belief in the interrelatedness of all life• casteANSWERPossible Responses:Karma: Karma motivates people to obey society’s laws.Belief in the interrelatedness of all life: People would be reluctant to harm any life form.Caste: Those born into a lower caste might work hard to achieve a higher caste in their next life.End of Section 2
13Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries Key Idea 3 HOME3Seafaring TradersExtend BoundariesKey IdeaAncient sea traders spread goods, culture, and innovative ideas in the Mediterranean and beyond. The Phoenicians are not only a great seafaring people but give the world the first written alphabetOverviewAssessment
14Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries Overview 3 • Minoans • Aegean Sea HOME3Seafaring TradersExtend BoundariesTERMS & NAMESOverview• Minoans• Aegean Sea• Knossos• King Minos• PhoeniciansMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWTrading societies extended the development of civilizations beyond the Fertile Crescent region.Traders spread knowledge of reading and writing, including an ancient form of the alphabet that we use today.Assessment
15Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries 3 3 HOME3Seafaring TradersExtend BoundariesSection3Assessment1. Below is a list of accomplishments. Identify feats that were Minoan and those that were Phoenician.dominated trade (2000–1400 B.C.)set up numerous city-statesdeveloped an alphabetproduced a famous purple dyejumped over bulls for funproduced fine painted potteryMinoanPhoeniciandominated trade (2000–1400 B.C.)jumped over bulls for funproduced fine painted potteryset up numerous city-statesdeveloped an alphabetproduced a famous purple dyecontinued . . .
16Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries 3 3 HOME3Seafaring TradersExtend BoundariesSection3Assessment2. In Herodotus’s account of how the Phoenicians sailed around Africa, what words show Herodotus’s doubt? Why do you think he expresses doubts? THINK ABOUT• the sources that reported the feat• Herodotus as a historian• the Phoenicians’ seafaring skills• the fact that the trip was not repeated for 2000 yearsANSWER“What some may believe, though I do not.”Herodotus was a historian. He did not want to tarnish his reputation by reporting something unlikely. There was no evidence of a second trip, so Herodotus was rightly skeptical.Possible Responses:continued . . .
17Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries 3 3 HOME3Seafaring TradersExtend BoundariesSection3Assessment3. The Phoenicians founded wealthy city-states around the Mediterranean. These city-states often competed with one another. Do you think it would have made more sense for the city-states to cooperate or did competition make them stronger? THINK ABOUT• advantages of a unified country• advantages of independence• benefits of competitionANSWERPossible Responses:Cooperation: Had Phoenicians united, they could have pooled their resources and been an even stronger and more profitable trading power.Competition: This keeps traders on their toes, so Phoenicians in all cities would have been better merchants.End of Section 3
18The Origins of Judaism Key Idea 4 HOME4The Origins of JudaismGRAPHKey IdeaThe religion of the ancient Hebrews is the world’s first major monotheistic religion. The Hebrews establish covenants with God, who is over all people. Their ethical and moral systems, as set forth in the Torah and Ten Commandments, become a foundation for Christianity and Islam.OverviewAssessment
19The Origins of Judaism Overview 4 • Palestine • Canaan • Torah HOME4The Origins of JudaismGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Palestine• Canaan• Torah•Abraham• monotheism• covenant• Moses• Israel• Judah• tributeMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Hebrews maintained monotheistic religious beliefs that were unique in the ancient world.From this tradition, Judaism, the religion of the Jews, evolved. Judaism is one of the world’s major religions.Assessment
20HOME4The Origins of JudaismGRAPHSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major Hebrew leaders discussed in this section. Then give one piece of information about each.2000 B.C.1300 B.C.1200 B.C.B.C.Abraham: Father of Jewish peopleMoses: Led Hebrews out of slaveryDeborah: A prominent judgeSaul, David, Solomon: Kings under whom Hebrews unitedcontinued . . .
21HOME4The Origins of JudaismGRAPHSection4Assessment2. What were the main problems faced by the Hebrews between 2000 B.C. and 700 B.C.? THINK ABOUT• the quest for a homeland• other peoples hardships• problems among HebrewsANSWERconstantly moving from place to placebeing forced into slavery in Egyptfighting with neighbors over landworshiping other godsperforming forced laborpaying high taxesdividing the Hebrew kingdom in twoPossible Responses:End of Section 4