2 Goals of Todays Session Provide insight to the problem of dropout among students with disabilities Connect effective teaching principles to the tasks and challenges of graduating students with disabilities Provide a brief review of the literature on effective instruction Identify 20 ways you can begin to improve educational outcomes for students with disabilities -Tomorrow
3 School Completion An important indicator of individual student accomplishment Evidence of academic success and task persistence Evidence of the extent to which schools engage students in the educational process. National accountability measure of school performance
4 How Big Is the Problem for Students with Disabilities? In the 1999-2000, 29.4% of all students with disabilities in grades 9-12 dropped out of school. Over 85,000 students with disabilities dropped out of school, enough to fill over 1,770 school buses National Center for Education Statistics, 2002. Dropout Rates in the United States: 2000.
5 What Do We Know About factors that attribute to High Dropout Rates Among Students with Disabilities?
6 Lessons Learned from Research Drop out Complex –Defined in various ways Event Status Cohort High school completion rate –Involves multiple factors –Involves disengagement
7 Who Drops Out & Why School Related (problems getting along with teachers, getting suspended or expelled, unfair discipline practices, bad grades, didnt like school) Peer Related (friends dropping out) External Stressors (pregnancy/teenage parenthood, need to support family) Individual (attitude toward school, relevance of education)
8 Understanding Why Students Drop Out Push effects – situations or experiences within the school environment that aggravate feelings of alienation, failure and dropout (e.g., raising standards without providing supports, suspension, negative school climate) Pull effects – factors external to the school environment that weaken or distract from the importance of school completion (e.g., pregnancy)
9 Bottom Line some cannot be easily altered to change the trajectory of dropout and school Factors associated with dropping out of school are numerous and completion rates Factors can be categorized into two major types: Status Alterable
10 For Students with Disabilities Alterable variables associated with dropout –high rates of absenteeism –history of course failure –low participation in extracurricular activities –negative attitudes toward school –grade retention
11 Key Concepts in Understanding Dropout Dropping out of school is a process of disengagement that begins early School completion encompasses a broader view than simply preventing dropout. Engaging students in school and learning is a key ingredient in preventing dropout and keeping kids in school (participation, identification, social bonding, personal investment in learning) A focus on enhancing students connection with school and facilitating successful school performance is a promising approach for improving school completion.
12 Student Engagement in School and Learning Engagement is a multi-dimensional construct involving associated indicators and facilitators (Christenson, 2002) –Academic (homework completion, on-task) –Behavioral (attendance, participation) –Cognitive (relevance of education to future) –Psychological (sense of belonging)
13 Address Alterable Variables School level alterable variables associated with school completion for students with disabilities (Wagner, Blackorby & Hebeler, 1993) –Providing direct, individualized tutoring and support to complete homework assignments –Support to attend class, and stay focused on school –Participation in vocational education classes –Participation in community based work experience programs and training for competitive employment
14 THE OPPORTUNITIES Improving Student Achievement Meeting Educational Requirements Visioning for All Students Expanding Student Opportunities Building Better Tomorrows
15 To every complex problem, there is a simple solution… that doesnt work Mark Twain
16 Strategies To Keep Students Engaged in School Academic Engagement – Strategies to increase time on task, academic engaged time, or credit accrual. Examples: –Principles of Effective and Differentiated Instruction –Active Listening –Note taking –Streamlining Transitions –Questioning & Feedback –Credit Recovery
17 What We Know that Works Effective Instruction! School-wide behavior supports Focus on adjusting school climate rather than changing students Reading & Math Instruction Progress Monitoring
18 Who Struggles in School?? Activity –Basic Patterns –Basic Math Facts –Mutli-step Problems
19 What do you believe? What is it that you believe about children/students and learning? What is it that you believe is the biggest challenge/barrier to academic success for all students?
20 All educators want children to learn. All parents want children to learn. All children want to learn. Belief Statements…
21 Shifts in Thinking… Over the last 30 years, how we address the needs of students has evolved – we have changed our thinking on how we teach and how children learn. These discoveries have resulted in changes in educational laws and practices.
22 Shifts in the Law… ESEA / NCLB –accountability –school improvement –adequate yearly progress (AYP) IDEA 2004 –effective instruction –progress monitoring –early intervening services
23 ESEA/NCLB and IDEA 2004 Companion laws that address closing the achievement gaps Underscore importance of high quality, scientifically-based instruction and interventions Hold schools accountable for the progress of ALL students in meeting grade level standards
24 Response to Intervention is… the practice of providing high-quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and using learning rate over time and level of performance to inform educational decisions Source: NASDSE. Response to Intervention: policy considerations and implementation
25 Response To Intervention (RTI) The main objective of RTI is not to identify students for special education, but rather to help all students achieve at a proficient level and ultimately [schools] make adequate yearly progress. Source: Nebraska Dept. of Education www.nde.state.ne.us/SPED/reg/documents/ResponseToIntervention-Admdays2005.pdf
26 RTI within the School Improvement Movement Student achievement and behavior improve as a result of early intervention May be thought of as a process that fits within school reform and school improvement efforts May help reduce disproportionate representation of minority students in special education
27 RTI and NCLB Utilizing a RTI framework across disciplines as well as grade levels is consistent with NCLB and promotes the idea that schools have an obligation to ensure that all students participate in strong instructional programs that support multi-faceted learning (NRCLD, July 2005)
28 Core Principles of RTI Unifying Belief: All kids can learn. Problem-Solving and Problem-Analysis Universal screening of academic, behavioral and social emotional indicators of success Prevention Focused: academic, behavioral, social emotional
29 Core Principles of RTI (continued) Evidence-based interventions with fidelity of implementation Ongoing and sensitive progress monitoring of student response to interventions Data-based decision making Multi-tiered system with increasing levels of intensity
30 Applications of RTI in the Research Prevent academic problems through early identification Intervene with low performing students Assist in identifying student with disabilities Source: Daryl Mellard, National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD). (March 2, 2006) Presentation at the IDEA Partnership Meeting, Integrating IDEA Provisions with School Reform: EIS & RTI.
31 Research Elements of RTI Two or more tiers of increasingly intense scientific, research-based interventions Individual problem solving model or standardized intervention protocol for intervention tiers Explicit decision rules for assessing learners progress Implementation of a scientifically-based, differentiated curriculum with different instructional methods. Source: Daryl Mellard, National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD). (March 2, 2006) Presentation at the IDEA Partnership Meeting, Integrating IDEA Provisions with School Reform: EIS & RTI.
32 An Example Tiered RTI Model Tier 1: CORE ACADEMIC AND BEHAVIORAL INSTRUCTION; UNIVERSAL SUPPORTS; universal screening and INSTRUCTIONAL and BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS (at least 80%) Tier 2: TARGETED INTERVENTIONS and progress monitoring (15%) AcademicBehavior Significantly Low Underachievement Insufficient Response to Intervention Tier 3: INTENSIVE INTERVENTIONS (5%)
33 Components of an Effective School-wide Model Adapted from Logan City School District, 2002 Curriculum and Instruction Assessment Instructional Environment and Resources Student Success
34 Connecting effective teaching principles to the tasks and challenges of graduating students with disabilities
35 Assessment Instruction Cycle Initial Assessment collect historical data formal standardized assessment diagnostic assessment Instructional Design analyze content for sameness select range of examples select language of instruction sequence language and examples organize into daily lessons schedule practice of examples provide for cumulative review Progress Monitoring determine appropriate starting level monitor progress frequently graph student scores evaluate progress determine need for instructional modifications Instructional Delivery secure attention pace briskly -frequent responses -adequate think time monitor student performance provide feedback -systematic corrective -specific reinforcement Madigan, Hall, & Glang (1997)
37 Ten Effective Teaching Principles 1.Active Engagement 2.Providing the Experience of Success 3.Content Coverage and Opportunity to Learn 4.Grouping for Instruction 5.Scaffolded Instruction Bost & Riccomini, 2006; Ellis, Worthington, et. al., 2001
38 Ten Effective Teaching Principles 6.Addressing Forms of Knowledge 7.Organizing & Activating Knowledge 8.Teaching Strategically 9.Making Instruction Explicit 10. Teaching Sameness Bost & Riccomini, 2006; Ellis, Worthington, et. al., 2001
39 1. Engaged Time Principle 1: Students learn more when they are engaged actively during an instructional task. …time is an important instructional variable!! Engaged Time Achievement Engaged Time Achievement
40 Engaged Time Three aspects of time that directly impact student learning: 1.time allocated for the activity 2.degree to which students are engaged during the allocated time 3.the rates of success the students experience while engaged in the activity
41 Engaged Time Academic Engaged Time The amount of allocated time a student spends actively engaged in appropriate tasks that she/he can perform with a high rate of success. This is learning!!!
42 ALLOCATED TIME 79% the amount of time allocated for instruction in a content area Time and the School Day AVAILABLE TIME 6 hours = 100% the amount of time available for all school activities in a school year ENGAGED TIME the amount of time the student is actively engaged in learning tasks Average = 42% Range: 25% - 58% ACADEMIC LEARNING TIME (ALT) the amount of time successfully engaged in academic tasks Average = 17% Range: 10% - 25%
43 –affects attitude as well as achievement –Success is important in the areas of schoolwork (e.g., academic success, good grades, success on high stakes assessment) as well as personal and social issues (McPartland, 1994) –how much time being successful? –how successful should they be? –what is critical for success? Question: How many more activities would you be willing to actively participate before you shutdown? 2. Success Rate
44 SuccessSuccess When you are not successful at something, it is only a matter of time before you will stop. When students are continually asked to complete tasks they cannot do for a variety of reasons: –Lack of preskills –Lack of prior knowledge –Lack of motivation THEY WILL SHUTDOWN!!!!
45 The more taught (well), the more learned Curriculum determination –what is taught –how to cover more….BETTER and EFFICIENTLY Teacher planning –Is time built into the day/week for teachers to plan and make instruction decisions based on instructionally relevant data –Match between appropriate material and student level –Teach explicitly and logically organized –Teach efficiently Professional Development –Differentiating instruction based on student needs is not an easy task to complete. –Focused and continuous professional development is needed 3. Content Coverage/Opportunity to Learn
46 More on Content Coverage Textbooks Influence Instruction 75-90% of classroom instructional activities are dictated by the textbook used by the teacher Textbooks represent the primary means of presenting new content to students
47 More on Content Coverage Problems with Textbooks –Lack of match for the learning needs of students with disabilities –Inconsiderate to naïve and slow learners –Overemphasize conceptual knowledge or procedural knowledge –Require modifications before to meet the needs of low performing students and students with disabilities –Textbook and/or curriculum operates as the foundation before teachers begin mix and matching
48 –Group = achievement –Advantages of grouping for instruction more instruction better instruction more on-task time practice critical behaviors –Group across classrooms and grades Easier in elementary and middle More of challenge in secondary 4. Grouping for Instruction
49 –Grouping allows for more focused instruction –The challenge is finding EXTRA TIME –After school is not always the best option –Reconfiguring the school day can provide additional instructional time. –Can you find this time???? Grouping = Additional ALT
50 Reading Instruction at Secondary Levels More and more schools are screening 9 th graders entering high school for reading problems/deficits Students identified with reading problems/deficits are placed in structured corrective reading programs designed for adolescents struggling to read Example programs include : –Corrective Reading-Scientific Reading Associates –Language!-Sopris West NOTE: 75% of students with reading problems in 3 rd grade exhibit reading problems in 9 th grade (if their still in school) –TIME is not an effective intervention!!!!!
51 temporary and adjustable support reduce task to fewest steps initial explicit demonstration promote student elaboration promoting cueing scaffolding and explicit instruction 5. Scaffolded Instruction
52 Special education teachers provide TOO much support Regular education teachers DO NOT provide ENOUGH support Whatever support is provided must be systematically FADED so that students become function independently 5. Scaffolded Instruction
53 Instructional Scaffolding Instructional –is a process in which a teacher adds supports for students to enhance learning and aid in the mastery of tasks. 3 Levels of Instructional Scaffolding –Content –Task –Material
54 3 Levels Instructional Scaffolding Content Scaffolding –the teacher selects content that is not distracting (i.e., too difficult or unfamiliar) for students when learning a new skill. –allows students to focus on the skill being taught, without getting stuck or bogged down in the content 3 Techniques for Content Scaffolding –Use Familiar or Highly Interesting Content –Use Easy Content –Start With the Easy Steps
55 Example of Content Scaffolding Math Word Problems Strategy Instruction –Remove irrelevant information –Include answer in the problem (i.e., no question) –Allows students to focus in process of strategy For example: –Robert planted an oak seedling. It grew 10 inches the first year. Every year after it grew 1 ¼ inches. How tall was the oak tree after 9 years? –An oak seedling grew 10 inches in the first year. Every year after it grew 1 inch. After 9 years the oak tree was 18 inches tall.
56 Instructional Scaffolding Task Scaffolding –Specify the steps in a task or instructional strategy –Teacher models the steps in the task, verbalizing his or her thought processes for the students. –the teacher thinks aloud and talks through each of the steps he or she is completing –Even though students have watched a teacher demonstrate a task, it does not mean that they actually understand how to perform it independently
57 Example of Task Scaffolding Lesson 1: –Teacher: Names the strategy step Describes the first step Models its use Lesson 2: –The students: Name the first step –Teacher: Describes the first step Models its use COPS (a strategy for editing paragraphs) Lesson 3: –The students : Name the first step Describe the first step –The Teacher: Models its use Lesson 4: –The students: Name the strategy step Describe the first step Model its use
58 ScaffoldingScaffolding How much scaffolding is necessary? BOTTOM LINE: As much as the students require to learn and be successful!
59 Instructional Scaffolding Material Scaffolding –Material scaffolding involves the use of written prompts and cues to help the students perform a task or use a strategy. –This may take the form of cue sheets or guided examples that list the steps necessary to perform a task. –Students can use these as a reference, to reduce confusion and frustration. –The prompts and cues should be phased out over time as students master the steps of the task or strategy.
60 Example of Material Scaffolding Concepts Mapsbetter to use a few rather than 50 different concepts maps Posters and bulletin boards are other examples. Remember they must be faded over time
61 Example of Material Scaffolding Guided examples: A step-by-step instructional guide for how to apply a strategy or complete a task.
62 a. Declarative facts, vocabulary b. Procedural how to use steps of a rule or strategy c. Conditional when and where to use rules or strategies 6. Address Forms of Knowledge
63 assist students in organizing, storing, and retrieving knowledge goal of education is transfer of knowledge therefore, students need to access and use knowledge problem areas insufficient knowledge base poorly organized knowledge base conditional knowledge 7. Activate and Organize Knowledge
65 ExamplesExamples 1. Name the Great lakes. HOMES
66 ExamplesExamples 1. Name the Great lakes. H uron O ntario M ichigan E rie S uperior HOMES Did that help you activate and retrieve the desired information?
67 Breakout Activity With a partner, list 2-3 other organizational devices that you use to help students or yourself. 1. 2. 3.
68 INTERVENTIONS RELATED TO ACTIVATION AND ORGANIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE memory devices –Mnemonic Devices advance organizers review of prerequisite skills graphic organizers structured study guides*** organized lectures with guided notes
69 Structured Note-Taking Guides Simple Technology At Work Proving students a structured note- taking guide to allow students to copy and paste notes was most efficient for completeness and accuracy of notes as well as for delayed recall of information (i.e., studying and retaining information) Igo, Riccomini, Bruning, & Pope, 2006; Igo & Riccomini, (in press).
70 Structured Note- Taking Sheet for Copy and Paste Students copy-pasted notes into structured note-taking sheet Students reported copy and paste was easier because they did not have to worry about spelling or typing (Igo et al., 2006) Other students reported that they could actually read and study their notes (Igo & Riccomini, in press)
72 Memory Aids and Devices Mnemonics Are devices, such as formulas or rhymes or pictures, used as aids in remembering. Mnemonics are instructional strategies suited for students who have difficulties focusing attention and exhibit poor motivation. Mnemonics are enjoyable, engaging, and highly successful
73 Example of Keyword Mnemonic Testing your Disney character knowledge. Identify which one is Chip and which one is Dale from the picture below.
74 Keyword Mnemonics Method Used to strengthen the connection between a new word and its associated information. Three ways to put information into a more meaningful and memorable forms (Reconstructive Elaborations) 1.Keyword method (acoustic reconstructions)-using similar-sounding keywords. 2.Symbolic Reconstructions- abstract information is reconstructed into a symbolic picture. 3.Pictorial or mimetic reconstructions- used to remember familiar or concrete information.
75 focus on becoming an independent, self- regulated learner how to learn versus teaching content all students use strategies, but some are not very efficient or effective dont generate strategies or learn them observationally (Pattern Activity & MultiStep Problem) use scaffolding, active student participation with the goal of independent strategy use 8. Strategic Instruction
76 Five Strategic Instructional Guidelines 1.Preskills of a strategy are taught before the strategy itself is presented 2.Instances that are consistent with a strategy are introduced before exceptions 3.High utility skills are introduced before less useful ones. 4.Easy skills are taught before more difficult ones. 5.Separate skills that are easily confused.
77 Strategy Instruction Model Programs University of Kansas Center on Research http://www.ku-crl.org
78 a. make goals, objectives, and expectations explicit b. make instructional content explicit c. make the structure of the lesson explicit 9. Making Instruction Explicit
79 The National Research Council (Kilpatrick,et al., 2001) call for a mix of explicit instruction with opportunities to apply principles using real-life problems. As teachers we recognize that students do and should construct their own knowledge. However, we must guide them in their discovery Explicit vs. Implicit
80 Explicit & Implicit Progression Explicitly model all critical steps Demonstrate the most efficient strategy multiple times with many examples Challenge students to develop their own way to become problem solvers (i.e., Ski example)
81 To promote transfer and generalization By teaching sameness in and across skills, we promote the ability to access knowledge in new situations. 10. Teaching Sameness Teachers can teach more content in less time and encourages students to build important foundational ideas for the development of more complex cognitive structures (i.e., problem solving skills)
82 More on Sameness By nature, we constantly seek out sameness, we attempt to figure out the strategy. Our goal as educators: Build APPROPRIATE cognitive structures AVOID learner misconceptions
83 Example of Sameness Parallelogram vs. Rectangle If we do not purposefully and explicitly make connections (teach sameness) students end up trying to learn many many separate concepts and ideas. Rubenstein & Thompson (2002). p. 110
84 Assessment Instruction Cycle Initial Assessment collect historical data formal standardized assessment diagnostic assessment Instructional Design analyze content for sameness select range of examples select language of instruction sequence language and examples organize into daily lessons schedule practice of examples provide for cumulative review Progress Monitoring determine appropriate starting level monitor progress frequently graph student scores evaluate progress determine need for instructional modifications Instructional Delivery secure attention pace briskly -frequent responses -adequate think time monitor student performance provide feedback -systematic corrective -specific reinforcement Madigan, Hall, & Glang (1997)
85 Effective Instruction Summary Educators can only control what they can controlAlterable variables most notably the Curricular Materials and Daily Instruction Some aspects can be completed at the Teacher Level while others are more of a System issue No assumptions other than: We (teachers) can always plan and deliver a more effective lesson!
86 20 Ways to Make Instruction More Effective 1.Use Big Ideas for Lesson Foundation 2.Sequence Information Strategically 3.Develop a Structure for Instructional Lessons 4.Connect New Content to Prior Knowledge 5.Explain New Content Clearly 6.Correct Errors Quickly 7.Make Abstract Concepts Conrete 8.Increase Allocated and Engaged Time 9.Increase Opportunities for Responding 10.Use Effective Questioning Techniques
87 20 Ways to Make Instruction More Effective 11.Maintain a Brisk Pace 12.Use Guided Practice 13.Alternate Using Examples and Nonexamples 14.Use Flexible Grouping 15.Monitor Student Progress 16.Use Assessment Data to Inform Instruction 17.Use Reminders (mnemonics) 18.Provide Guided Notes 19.Teach Concepts Maps 20.Demonstrate Self-Monitoring & Adjusting Skills
88 Insanity is continuing to do what you have always done and expecting different results Albert Einstein