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Classroom Practices Promoting Engagement and Achievement in Comprehension John T. Guthrie University of Maryland CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All.

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Presentation on theme: "Classroom Practices Promoting Engagement and Achievement in Comprehension John T. Guthrie University of Maryland CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classroom Practices Promoting Engagement and Achievement in Comprehension John T. Guthrie University of Maryland CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

2 Maps of Reading Phonology Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Knowledge & Experience Self - determining literacy (independence) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

3 Who believes engagement and motivation are integral to reading comprehension? Who believes engagement and motivation are integral to instruction for reading comprehension? Who believes teachers need guidance in supporting engagement and motivation for reading comprehension? Who believes we have a research base for instruction to support engagement and motivation in reading comprehension? POLL CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

4 Points for Today 1.Engagement has a shared meaning. 2.Engagement and comprehension are synergistic. 3.Research base in comprehension is incomplete. 4.Classroom practices can promote (or prevent) reading engagement. 5.Experimental (and other) evidence verifies classroom effects. 6.Implications for research and teaching. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

5 EngagementWhat is it? Leslie Morrowuse of literature (reading time), influenced by literature in instruction Mike Pressleyfocused, observable text interaction, influenced by outstanding teachers Barbara Taylor & David Pearsonactive reading, influenced by teachers challenging, high level questions CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

6 EngagementWhat is it? Ellen Skinnerenthusiasm, participation, influenced by perceived involvement, contingency Phyllis Blumenfeldstrategic thinking, influenced by conceptual goals in classroom Isabel Beckconceptual analysis of text influenced by micro-analysis via questions CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

7 EngagementWhat is it? Diane Schallertwriting-reading involvement, influenced by depth and features of text Martin Nystrandstudent discussion of text, influenced by social scaffolding Deborah Stipeksecondary students school participation, commitment, motivation, influenced by classroom/school goal structure Ivey, Gambrell, Oldfather, Worthyinterests portrayed for individuals CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

8 EngagementWhat is it? Guthrie, Wigfield, students Joint functioning of: –motivation –strategies –knowledge –social interaction, During text interaction CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

9 Engagement Model of Reading Development Comprehension Achievement Practices Real-World Interaction Learning and Knowledge Goals Autonomy Support Interesting Text Strategy Instruction Collaboration Support Rewards And Praise Evaluation Teacher Involvement Social Interactions Motivations Conceptual Knowledge Strategy Use CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

10 Points for Today 1.Engagement has a shared meaning. 2.Engagement and achievement in comprehension are synergistic. 3.Research base in comprehension is incomplete. 4.Classroom practices can promote (or prevent) reading engagement. 5.Experimental (and other) evidence verifies classroom effects. 6.Implications for research and teaching. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

11 Engagement and Achievement Does amount of engaged reading influence achievement? Engaged= active book reading, personal purposes, beyond assignments, talking to family and friends, seeking books. Questionnaire in NAEP, related to: Achievement = NAEP grade 4, 1994 (Guthrie, Schafer, Huang, J. Ed. Res. 2001) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

12 Construct from NAEP Questionnaire How often: do you read for fun on your own time? does your teacher give you time to read books you have chosen yourself? does your teacher ask you to read silently? do you take books out of the school library or public library for your own enjoyment? CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

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16 Conclusions Reading engagement is more highly associated with NAEP reading achievement than demographic variables that represent traditional barriers to achievement. Reading engagement is more highly associated with NAEP than 3 years of secondary education. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

17 Comprehension and Amount of Reading NRP pronounced no benefit of amount of reading for comprehension because no experimental studies. But many scientific, multiple regression studies support relationship. Amount of reading (print exposure) predicts reading comprehension, statistically controlling for SES, prior achievement, vocabulary, word recognition. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

18 Points for Today 1.Engagement has a shared meaning. 2.Engagement and achievement in comprehension are synergistic. 3.Research base in comprehension is incomplete. 4.Classroom practices can promote (or prevent) reading engagement. 5.Experimental (and other) evidence verifies classroom effects. 6.Implications for research and teaching. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

19 Knowledge Base in Reading Comprehension Instruction What is the most secure, firmly based knowledge we (you) have about reading comprehension instruction? What do we (you) know for sure? CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

20 Knowledge Base in Reading Comprehension What do we know, and how do we know it? NRP and RER Gersten et al., meta analysis CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

21 Reading Instruction Knowledge Base How do we know: Type of Investigation What do we know: Instruction scope Controlled experimentation Quasi experimentation/ Systematic observation Case studies/ Qualitative A. Low 433 B. Low/ Moderate 232 C. Moderate 122 D. High 012 *Number of studies: 4 – Very many; 3 – Many; 2 – Some; 1 - Few CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

22 Reading Instruction Knowledge Base 1.Low – 1 strategy; 1 week; 1-6 ratio; recall 2.Low-moderate– 2-4 strategies; 3-5 weeks; 1-6 ratio; recall 3.Moderate6-8 strategies; 12 weeks; 1-25 ratio; recall and transfer 4.High6-8 strategies; 36 weeks; 1-25 ratio; comprehension, fluency, writing Instructional Scope CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

23 Reading Instruction Knowledge Base Instruction scope Controlled experimentation Quasi experimentation/ Systematic observation Case studies/ Qualitative A. Low 433 B. Low/ Moderate 232 C. Moderate 1* 2 *2 D. High 012 *Number of studies: 4 – Very many; 3 – Many; 2 – Some; 1 - Few Type of Investigation CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

24 Beyond NRP Management of strategy instruction over year; (e.g., sequencing; explicitness) Content connections Engagement and motivation for reading Scaffolding for diversity in classroom Research in NRP and RER was designed to solve low scope intervention problem Not a field-based classroom instruction problem - Latter not solved CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

25 Methods Across Publications--- 1.Ethnography 2.Case studies 3.Verbal protocol analysis 4.Systematic classroom observations 5.Multiple linear regression 6.Hierarchical linear modeling 7.Structural equation modeling 8.Analysis by synthesis 9.Quasi experiments 10.True experiments CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

26 Continuum Inductive Field Qualitative External validity Grounded theory Deductive Laboratory Quantitative Internal validity Cause and effect (1)Discovery…….. (10)Confirmation Convergence is Confirming CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

27 Convergence is Confirming Public knowledge depends on grounding from discovery methods, and verification from confirmation methods. Validity relies on body of inquiry possessing external realism, and internal warrant. NICHDMarch, 2004 J. Literacy Research, forthcoming, 2004 CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

28 Points for Today 1.Engagement has a shared meaning. 2.Engagement and comprehension are synergistic. 3.Research base in comprehension is incomplete. 4.Classroom practices can promote (or prevent) reading engagement. 5.Experimental (and other) evidence verifies classroom effects. 6.Implications for research and teaching. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

29 Classroom Practices CORI Video What are all the features and actions in this environment that support students reading engagement? CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

30 Engagement Practices in CORI Knowledge goals in a conceptual theme Real world interactions Choices and self direction Interesting texts Collaborating in literacy CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

31 Promoting Concept Knowledge Goals Teaching understanding through conceptual themes about enduring and important concepts vs. pursuing trivial, isolated facts. Promoting in-depth learning in an integrated framework. Helping students embrace challenge and risk-taking in reading to learn. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

32 Interacting with the Real World It establishes a purpose for reading that is personally significant and meaningful. It piques students curiosities for reading and sense of wonder about their obesrvations. It fosters students creating of personal goals for reading and learning concepts via question asking. Why is this important for student motivation? CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

33 Supporting Student Choice (Autonomy) in CORI Providing students with meaningful and academically significant choices Encouraging student ownership and control over their learning Promoting self-expression via communicating to others Encouraging unique approaches in learning concepts CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

34 Interesting Texts CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

35 Collaborating in CORI What? Nurturing a positive social structure in the classroom Helping students establish common goals and sense of belonging in the classroom Helping students develop long-term collaborations via research projects Helping students learn to collaborate on complex tasks of reading, writing, and science learning CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

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37 Literature on Engagement- supporting Practices in Reading Meta analysis 22 studies; 131 effect sizes 75% true experiments Conservative computations Guthrie & Humenick (2004). P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds). The Voice of Evidence in Reading Research, Brookes Publishing CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

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39 Benefits of Motivational Classroom Practices for Students Reading Comprehension and Achievement CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

40 Scaffolding for Engagement Engaged readers select: 1.Topics appropriate to knowledge goals 2.Tasks matched to accountabilities or task 3.Time for interacting with text/task 4.Strategies to comprehend or fix-up 5.Collaboration for learning 6.Related activity multi-media; hands-on 7.Self-expressions of knowledge or interpret CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

41 Scaffolding for Motivational Growth Teacher-directed Teacher selects: Text (basaloctopus ) Topic (octopus description) Task (answer 3 fact questions) Time (20 minutes) Strategy (read-answer; read-answer; read-answer) Social arrangement, (solo) Related activity (rare) Evaluation of reading CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

42 Scaffolding for Motivational Growth Self-selected Reading Teacher selects time, (20 minutes) task (book talk maybe) strategy (silent reading) social arrangement (solo) related activity (none) task evaluation (none) Student selects: text, (within fiction) topic, (chapter book) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

43 Scaffolding for Engagement Growth--#1 Teacher selects: topic (solar system) task (explain one planet aloud) time (20 min.) Student selects: text, (which nonfiction book) strategy, (read; discuss; write; question) social arrangement, (pair; trio) task evaluation, (draw&label; write paragraph) related activity (Hubble photosonline ; or not) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

44 Scaffolding for Motivational GrowthScaffold #2 Teacher selects: text, (which nonfiction book: solar system) strategy, (read; discuss; write) social arrangement, (pair) task evaluation, (write paragraph) related activity (Hubble photosonline) Student selects: topic, (which planet, meteor, dust, etc.) time, (40 min. this task; then read novel) task (learn facts; explain movements) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

45 Scaffolding for Motivational GrowthAdvantages Students learn multiple dimensions of self- directed, engaged reading. Students invest in mainstream curriculum. Students choices/investment increase meaningfulness, and personal value of reading. Students increase cognitive engagement in instructional activities. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

46 Scaffolding for Motivational GrowthProblems Too high scaffoldSs bored; detached Too low scaffold---Ss lost; disabled Timing scaffoldstoo long; too brief Insufficient number of scaffolds in diverse classroom Inadequate adaptation of scaffold to Ss Failure to fade scaffolds for self-direction Challenges to research and innovation. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

47 Points for Today 1.Engagement has a shared meaning. 2.Engagement and comprehension are synergistic. 3.Research base in comprehension is incomplete. 4.Classroom practices can promote (or prevent) reading engagement. 5.Experimental (and other) evidence verifies classroom effects. 6.Implications for research and teaching. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

48 Ultimate Goal in CORI Enable students to be ENGAGED READERS wherein they are: reading avidly pursuing important concepts socializing about their reading using reading strategies CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

49 Research Method Motivational Practices Strategy Instruction Text Interaction CORISTRATEGY INSTRUCT. TRAD. INSTRUCT. Analysis by Synthesis: Hierarchical Instructional Design CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

50 Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction Direct Strategy Instruction Activate, Question, Search, Summarize, Monitor, Organize, Write Via Explaining, Modeling, Guided practice Motivate with Inquiry context: Knowledge goals Hands-on science Realistic choices Interesting texts Collaboration CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

51 Prerequisite for Strategy Instruction FLUENCY on the text for strategy instruction Generalized fluency not required Read and reread for expressiveness; make it interesting, fascinating Then, question, summary, graphic organizer CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

52 Does CORI Work? 4 Experiments Year long CORI Grades Schools; 12 teachers Multicultural, Chapter I schools CORI vs. Traditional Instruction CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

53 Does CORI Work? CORI Advantages over Traditional in: Reading Comprehension Reading Strategies Reading Motivation Guthrie, et.al. RRQ, 1996; ESJ, 1999 J.Ed.Psych, 1998, CORI vs. Traditional Instruction CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

54 Questions for Study I-2004 To what extent does CORI, in comparison to SI, increase: Reading comprehension Reading motivation Reading strategy competence Guthrie, Wigfield, others. J.Educ.Psy., 2004 CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

55 Research Method Motivational Practices Strategy Instruction Text Interaction CORISTRATEGY INSTRUCT. TRAD. INSTRUCT. Analysis by Synthesis: Hierarchical Instructional Design CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

56 Instructional Frameworks Engagement support: Content goals for instruction Hands on experiences Autonomy support Interesting text Collaboration in instruction Strategy instruction: Activating background Questioning Searching Summarizing Organizing graphically Structuring stories Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

57 Instructional Frameworks Strategy instruction: Activating background Questioning Searching Summarizing Organizing graphically Structuring stories Strategy Instruction (SI) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

58 Study I: Method Designpretest, posttest equivalent groups Students260 third graders, in 4 schools, mixed Instruction12 weeks, 100 min. daily Professional development days CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

59 Professional Development Days summer; 5 fall Teachers do mini CORI (2.5 hours) Teachers do childrens strategies View videos of motivation support View videos of excellent strategy instruction Adapt Teachers Guide to children, books, goals in classrooms CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

60 Study I: Method Multiple text comprehension70 pages, 22 sections, writing task Passage comprehension500 word passages; relatedness of key words Strategiesactivating background, questioning, searching for information Motivationself-reportcuriosity, involvement, challenge, self-efficacy Pretest and Posttest Measures: CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

61 Reading Motivation Development (gr. 3-5) Interests in topics or authors Involvement in extended reading Knowing through reading Choice and ownership of topics/texts/authors Social goals and interactions Efficacy for reading in domain Identity as a reader CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

62 Interest I think I read about all the books on my bookshelf about four times. I like reading about animals…Really I usually wont put no animal book down unless its really, really boring…I love animal books a lot. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

63 Involvement I take bottles of water to my room, because when I start to read I dont come out of my room for about three hours…Sometimes I even take books to the dinner table and read. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

64 Knowledge & Information I just like to learn a lot. Its really fun for me and its just really cool that you can learn something that your parents dont even know…I like to teach teachers things that they dont know yet. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

65 Choice When I pick out a book, usually its about something I like…I like picking them out myself because I always pick out a book that inspires me and that I like. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

66 Social Sometimes Ill walk up to the teacher at the end of the day and when everyones left, Ill sit there and talk to her about it, and Ill ask her questions about the book. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

67 Efficacy Usually the books in the library are a little too easy and I dont like easy books. I like challenging books. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

68 CORI and SI on Passage Comprehension CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

69 CORI and SI on Multiple Text Comprehension (I) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

70 CORI and SI on Strategy Composite (activating background, organizing, searching) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

71 CORI and SI on Reading Motivation Composite CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

72 Conclusions-Study I CORI surpassed SI in: Passage comprehension Reading strategy composite Reading motivation composite (self-report) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

73 Study II: Method Identical to Study I, except: Standardized reading comp. (Gates MacGinitie) Motivation measureteachers ratings Traditional instruction group (4 classrooms) Added classrooms (3) within schools CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

74 CORI, SI and TI on Passage Comprehension CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

75 CORI, SI + TI on Gates MacGinitie (grade equivalent)(II) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

76 CORI and SI on Reading Motivations CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

77 Study II: Conclusions CORI surpassed SI and TI on passage comprehension (replication) CORI exceeded SI and TI on Gates MacGinitie reading comprehension CORI was higher than SI on reading motivations (teacher ratings) CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

78 Research Method Motivational Practices Strategy Instruction Text Interaction CORISTRATEGY INSTRUCT. TRAD. INSTRUCT. Analysis by Synthesis: Hierarchical Instructional Design CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

79 Discussion: Inferences from Findings Hierarchical instructional design When motivational support is combined with strategy instruction and text interaction, CORI is value added for reading outcomes, compared to SI or TI. This value added may be due to all or some, or the interaction among motivational practices within CORI. We believe they are synergistic. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

80 Points for Today 1.Engagement has a shared meaning. 2.Engagement and comprehension are synergistic. 3.Research base in comprehension is incomplete. 4.Classroom practices can promote (or prevent) reading engagement. 5.Experimental (and other) evidence verifies classroom effects. 6.Implications for research and teaching. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

81 NCLB mandates grade 3-8 assessment; SBRR addresses K-2 word recognition. Comprehension research in grades 3-8 is limited. Education decisions most impacted by NCLB have least research base. Two Gaps in Knowledge--- #1 Implications So, we need research on comprehension instruction, using multiple methods, including investigations of engagement. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

82 Two Gaps in Knowledge--#2 Comprehension instruction from experimental literature is low scope strategy instruction. Little extended application. CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004 Implications So, we need innovative teaching practices that provide pervasive, designed engagement support, as well as strategy instruction.

83 Implications Optimistic about current trajectory Body of knowledge in engagement is born and growing Evidence is positive for model of: –instruction impacts engagement; –engagement impacts achievement –both benefit children CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004

84 not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. –W. B. Yeats Education is CORI©Copyright by John T. Guthrie. All rights reserved, May 1, 2004


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