What did the National Reading Panel really say about Silent Sustained Reading (SSR)? National Reading Panel (NRP, 2000, p. 3-24) The National Reading Panel (NRP, 2000, p. 3-24) found 10 SSR studies that met their stringent criteria for inclusion in a meta- analysis of effects on reading fluency. 7 of 10 studies reported no statistically significant effect or mixed effects for SSR on students’ reading achievement of growth.
What did the National Reading Panel really say about Silent Sustained Reading (SSR)? Of the 3 studies that found significantly different effects favoring SSR as compared with a control or other comparison groups, the magnitude of effect estimates in these three studies were relatively and absolutely small and were judged to be of a “non- educationally” significant size (National Reading Panel, 2000, pg. 3-24).
Why didn’t SSR work? Some weaknesses included: no teacher guidance for students about how to select appropriately challenging texts to read; poor monitoring of students during the time allocated for reading practice; little or no teacher interaction with students around reading texts; and no student accountability, purposes, or goals for the time spent in reading practice.
Why didn’t SSR work very well as a way to practice reading effectively for fluency? One of the concerns and criticisms surrounding traditionally implemented SSR focused upon the conspicuous absence of teacher and student interactions around the reading of texts.
Why didn’t SSR work very well as a way to practice reading effectively for fluency? Steven Stahl contended that (2004, p. 206), “One failing of SSR is that teachers may not monitor their students’ reading…”
Why didn’t SSR work very well as a way to practice reading effectively for fluency? Bryan, Fawson & Reutzel (2003) demonstrated that when classroom teachers monitored their students’ silent reading during SSR using brief interactions and accountability conferences that the even the most disengaged students in the class remained on task for up to three weeks without additional monitoring visits.
Why didn’t SSR work very well as a way to practice reading effectively for fluency? Allowing choice of reading materials increases student motivation (Guthrie & Wigfield, 1997). BUT unguided choice can often lead to students selecting inappropriately difficult books for reading practice (Donovan, Smolkin, and Lomax, 2000; Fresch, 1995).
Why didn’t SSR work very well as a way to practice reading effectively for fluency? National Reading Panel (NRP, 2000) The National Reading Panel (NRP, 2000) found another feature of effective reading practice involved students’ receiving feedback about their reading.
Reading Apprenticeship and SSR Reading practice that redesigns conditions to deal affirmatively with past concerns and criticisms surrounding traditionally implemented Silent Sustained Reading (SSR).
RA & SSR Provide students with necessary support, guidance, structure, appropriate text difficulty, accountability, and monitoring that will assist them in transferring their oral reading skills to successful and effective silent reading practice.
How do you implement SSR? Get books into hands of students: Visit media center Create a classroom library Do a book pass
How do you implement SSR? Establish a protocol and routine: Minutes per session Stay on task Everyone participates
How do you implement SSR+? Teach book selection strategy lessons including: Ten page rule Book pass Reading Survey Genre Study Student Book Advertising
How do you implement SSR+? Choice : Guided Student Selection Find Independent reading level Lexile as a guide Survey to find genre/author interest
How do you implement ScSR? Progress: Monitor progress: pages read, number of minutes, books selected Commitment to process: start on time, not distracted, brings book Goal setting
How do you implement SSR? Feedback: Teacher monitoring and feedback Peer talks Self feedback – logs, journals, connections
How do you implement ScSR? Reading lesson practice: Teacher explanation and modeling of 1) an aspect or element of fluent reading 2) how to apply a comprehension strategy during reading using a teacher selected text.
Why do students need SSR? Arthur (1995) demonstrated that in kindergarten, elementary, and middle school studies students with voluntary interest in reading have better “work habits, social and emotional development, language structure, and overall school performance but these children also scored significantly higher on standardized reading tests” (p. 3).
Measure Success Total number of pages/books read Track number of minutes Follow number of books checked out of media center Survey student behaviors
Student Survey I am prepared every SSR day for with a book that I enjoy reading. Reading during SSR has helped me be a better reader. I read on my own for enjoyment at home or in other classes I respond to my reading everyday in my journal. I feel good about finding and choosing books I will enjoy reading. I have read____books on my own since the beginning of the year. (average total number per student)