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Motivating and Scaffolding Middle School English Language Learners: Focus on Content and Collaboration Project ALL (Advancing Literacy for Learning) Donna.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivating and Scaffolding Middle School English Language Learners: Focus on Content and Collaboration Project ALL (Advancing Literacy for Learning) Donna."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivating and Scaffolding Middle School English Language Learners: Focus on Content and Collaboration Project ALL (Advancing Literacy for Learning) Donna Ogle & Project ALL Team IRA, Toronto, May 14, 2007

2 Research-based practices The amount of reading students do is critical A positive dimension of our research is that all our studies have demonstrated that reading yields significant dividends for everyone – not just for the smart kids or the more able readers. Even the child with limited reading and comprehension skills will build vocabulary and cognitive structures through reading. A. Cunningham & K. Stanovich (1998)

3 Enhancing vocabulary through reading and study of academic terms According to Anderson, Wilson and Fielding (1986) students at the 90 th percentile in terms of volume of reading encounter 200 times more words than students at the 10 th percentile. Marzanos review of vocabulary research indicates that students comprehension can be improved by 33 percent when key academic vocabulary is taught (p.69)

4 SOCIAL CONTEXTS Involve students actively and personally –Connecting to their lives –Connecting with each other Create opportunities for active thinking and student input Develop a metacognitive orientation and engage students in assessment Embed reading instruction in extended, rich instructional contexts – more critical thinking

5 Project ALL Advancing Literacy for Learning by: Providing curricular support for teachers with struggling readers and English Language Learners (ELL) Using the Sheltered Immersion Observation Protocol (SIOP) Developing as a research and exploratory model: case studies, classroom pilots of content units with informal assessments, differentiated texts and Partner Reading, and observations to create a collection of effective strategies teachers are using Encouraging more academic & personal reading and integrating strategies into partner and personal reading

6 Content reading in social studies and science Developing lessons using the SIOP framework – Content and Language Objectives specified Providing a collection of small books on a content them at varied reading levels are used Teacher introduces the content of the unit Fluency snapshots help determine partners Students read for 20 minutes with partners Students keep notes on their questions and vocabulary they want to learn

7 Informational text sets Developing Grades 4 - 8 Range of reading difficulty Range of conceptual difficulty & focus Illustrative sets; models for teaching Partner Reading with content materials with an emphasis on: Questioning and Discussion & Vocabulary

8 Text Sets For Grades 3, 5, & 8

9 5 th Grade Science Texts Title/Reading LevelAuthorPublisher Simple Machines(6pk.) (2 nd ) G. ThompsonNational Geographic Machines Make it Move (6pk.) (6 th ) S. M. TomecekNational Geographic Useful Machines: Wheels (2 nd ) Chris OxladeHeinemann From Axes to Zippers: Simple Machines (3 rd ) K. FrenchBenchmark Education

10 Teachers Guides Theme ideas Guide to text levels, features and structure Partner reading guide Rich instructional model –Before reading (KWL, Text Preview) –During reading (Graphic Organizer) –After reading (KWL, Extended response) Links to Standards Vocabulary Additional teaching ideas

11 Anticipate students levels of interest in informational texts Visual preview of text covers Interest inventories One Minute Fluency

12 Establishing Partner Reading Provide an encouraging, positive social context for students to read together – on the carpet, at tables, etc. Guide students use of their active reading strategies with repeated practice with their partner; apply what is known about comprehension and vocabulary Assess students reading levels with fluency checks and match partners with appropriate levels of materials

13 Supporting all readers with PRC2 (Partner Reading & Content Too) Read materials at instructional levels Multiple readings of the same text Rehearsed oral reading Enjoyable social interactions Choice in texts Able to read multiple texts and challenging ones after introduction to topic and vocabulary Using the academic vocabulary orally increases familiarity with terms and uses

14 PARTNER READING Book Preview A. What is it about? B. How is it organized? C. Look through the book (chapter-by-chapter walk-through) and notice: 1. Organization 2. Headings and Sub-headings 3. Pictures and Captions 4. Illustrations 5. Diagrams 6. Boxed Information 7. Highlighted vocabulary Boldface Italics Boxed Definitions 8. Resources in the book – glossary, index, suggested web- sites and other books D. Partners preview cover of book and Table of Contents together

15 PRC2- Partner Reading Routine Partners share one text on independent or instructional level & take turns reading sections orally Both partners first read the 2 pages silently, to get a sense of the text Partners rereads their page to prepare for their performance read and select or write a question using the guide or their QAR knowledge Each partner reads a page/section orally and asks a question of the listener-partner: partners talk about text Partners switch roles of reader and listener as they read section by section Each partner adds words to personal academic vocabulary notebook at end of PRC2

16 Simple Machines Gare Thompson (2000) Work What does work mean to a scientist? Scientists say that work is done when a force is used to move an object over a distance. To do work, you must move something. Suppose you use force to push on a wall. Are you doing work? NO, the wall does not move. What if you push a door and it opens. Now, you are doing work. The door moved. Your push was the force that made the door move. P.1 Machines and Work We do work every day. But we can make work easier. How? We can use machines. A machine is anything that helps us do work. Machines make work easier. They help us cut things, mix things, and move heavy things. Some machines are called simple machines. A simple machine is a machine that has few or no moving parts. A simple machine does one of the following: –increases the speed of something –Increases the force that you use –Changes the direction of the force that you use »P.2

17 Question Guide What was most important in this section? What was most interesting? What connections can you make to these ideas? What could the author have done to make this easier to understand?

18 Learning to discuss text ideas: New scaffolds on bookmarks Receive your partners ideas –Thank you. Those are good ideas… –That was interesting. You helped me. Elaborate and extend ideas –Can you tell me more? –Can you think of another example? Clarify Make connections Add a different perspective

19 Teachers Role in PRC2 Collect appropriate materials Introduce unit and help identify purposes Observe and listen to students as they read & discuss & make notes on what you learn Guide vocabulary development Orchestrate group sharing Provide positive feedback to students

20 Pieces of the Puzzle: How to reach and engage all students, especially those struggling to meet grade level demands How to use the language strengths of children to access English texts How to provide a wider range of reading materials for students – more literary non-fiction and general informational texts How to increase the amount of instruction in reading to learn

21 Developing Formative Assessment Amy Correa Project ALL, Co-director

22 What is academic literacy? Double the Work defines the term in the following way: –Includes reading, writing, and oral discourse for school –Varies from subject to subject –Requires knowledge of multiple genres of text, purposes for text use, and text media –Is influenced by students literacy in contexts outside of school –Is influence by students personal, social, and cultural experiences

23 Assessments reflect content- specific reading ISAT – equal fiction and non-fiction passages, linked procedural texts NAEP – mix of reading materials and tasks to reflect reading different genre and reading multiple texts International assessments (PIRLS & PISA) indicate that US students need to become more flexible in the kinds of reading they do: more informational and more critical responses

24 Developing Formative Assessments Where are the students? How do we assess what they bring with them? How do we look at multiple measures to get a complete picture of students language skills and content knowledge? How does literacy assessment fit in the content area?

25 Project ALL (Advancing Literacy for Learning) working with content reading Observing and listening to students interpret text as they think aloud

26 Assessments within Project ALL Fluency Snapshots Visual Interest Idea Concept Morphology (5th graders had tremendous difficulty; so more focus this year) Table of Contents Observational Notes

27 Fluency Snapshots Where are my students in relationship to the classroom materials I have them reading? –Quick initial screening –Instructional uses –Informs oral fluency

28 Visual Interest What type of genre do my students prefer? Any informational texts? –Students explain reasoning of choosing one over the other –Helps teacher assess prior knowledge and interest of students on specific topic –Helps teacher assess genre in classroom library


30 Idea Concept Web What background knowledge are my students coming with? –Students categorize words under specific labels –Frontloads vocabulary of content area –Helps teacher assess prior knowledge of both concepts and words

31 The Solar System Planets People Spacecraft &Equipment ________ ________ ________ ________ Sort the following words into the categories you think they best fit. Since we are just beginning the unit there should be many words that are new to you. Note them as you find them in your reading. Terms: asteroid, astronomer, comet, Crew, Earth, meteor, mission specialist, Venus, Yuri Gagarin, Saturn, shuttle, Booster rocket, telescope, Neptune, satellite, astronaut, helmet, moon Orbiting Objects ________

32 Morphology Do my students have a good idea of word meanings? Are they able to expand their knowledge of words by understanding unit parts? –Students demonstrate their understanding of the structure and meanings of words –Helps ELLs think about the Latin and Greek roots within their own language (relationship to cognates)


34 Table of Content What understanding of informational texts are students coming with? –Students fill in appropriate chapters from two different types of genre –Helps teacher assess understanding of student exposure to non-fiction or expository text –Helps teacher determine student understanding of main concepts


36 Observational Notes How is the teacher systemically providing time to collect anecdotal notes on the literacy development of all students in the content area several times a month? –Structured time in which teacher can observe students: oral reading skills, questions and discussion ability, knowledge of vocabulary, social behaviors, communication, pacing, motivation, level, lack of understanding of content (comprehension), instructional needs, follow-up plans, etc.

37 Observational Notes for PRC2 Partner 1_________________ Title of Book Partner 2. Date Number of sessions with book Partner 1Partner 2 Oral reading notes Questioning (asking or answering) Attention to knowledge of vocabulary Teacher Reflections: (Partners social behaviors, communication, pacing, motivation, level, lack of understanding of content (comprehension), instructional needs, follow-up plans, etc.) (Ogle & Correa, 2004)



40 Break Out Sessions There will be 2 sessions of break-outs; choose two you will attend – one from each set of four Presenters: Javier Arriola,, Debra Gurvitz, Peggy Gyftakos, Jeanette Hamman, Renee Mackin, Margaret McGregor Carol Schmitz, Christine Seidman

41 Fluency Snapshot: Matching Texts Session 1 - A Content Objective Assessment to identify instructional text level Language Objective Explain the purpose and limitations of the fluency snapshot Activities –Try a fluency snapshot and graph result –Review student data –Select text in alignment to student score of correct words read

42 Partner Reading & Content Too (PRC2) Session 1 - B Content Objectives –Learn the steps in PRC2 –Use the student guide sheet –Use leveled books to match students with partners and texts Language Objectives Use academic vocabulary to describe the components of the texts (Table of Contents, headings, visual displays) and how to engage (preview, question, discuss) Activities –Preview components –Engage in PRC2 reading with partner

43 Vocabulary Using Technology Session 1 - C Content Objective –Provide electronic/computerized experience to assist in the internalization of content and related vocabulary –Build and connect to students home language Cognates Language Objectives Discuss ways to incorporate more use of new vocabulary in the classroom and integrate reading and speaking Activities –Electronic Jeopardy –Cognates –Semantic Gradient

44 Text Structure Session 1 D Content Objective Provide strategies to understand elements of informational text Table of contents, index, glossary Text boxes, captions, bold text (fonts), headings, sub headings Graphs/charts Illustrations/photographs Language Objectives Examine the importance of teaching text structure; Practice describing text structure features to students as part of introduction of a lesson Activities –Preview text –Predicting –Guess the Heading –Think, pair, share –Questioning

45 Organizing and Observing PRC2 Session 2 - A Content Objective Provide ways to manage and organize PRC2 Language Objectives –Learn the vocabulary of PRC2; –Develop ways to describe & analyze student talk Activities –Set up management folders –Role of the teacher – observational notes –Audio tapes using observation form

46 Vocabulary Games Session 2 - B Content Objective –Provide multi-sensory learning experiences to enhance content vocabulary –Build on word knowledge Roots, base words, affixes Language Objectives –Incorporate a variety of vocabulary development activities to deepen students retention and learning of key vocabulary Activities –Pyramid game ( concept sorts) –Vocabulary beans (morphology) –Jeopardy (roots, base words, affixes)

47 Questioning and Discussion Session 2 - C Content Objective Provide opportunities to construct meaning Connections, syntheses, engagement, clarification Language Objectives Learn and use the vocabulary of PRC2 Activities –Four square questioning probes –Conversation starters –Responding to the text

48 Word and Concept Sorts Session 2 - D Content Objective Provide kinesthetic activities for students to organize content and related vocabulary words and concepts Language Objectives Develop students ability to describe and explain their reasons for grouping words Activities –Pre and post assessment sorts –Open, closed and layered sorts –Student generated sorts

49 University Collaboration Within and Across Schools Carol Schmitz Debra Gurvitz Javier Arriola

50 Across Schools Visit to Carson and Bateman Schools Saturday Seminars –Articulation across schools in the project –Year Two met at Project Schools Friday Seminars at National-Louis University –Articulation of the units –Data collection to inform instruction

51 Professional Development Opportunities University Classes –Masters in Education, Reading –Endorsement in Reading or Type 10 Reading Specialist SIOP Training Saturday Seminars Professional Presentations –Area 4 Staff Development Spring 2006 –International Reading Association 2007

52 Leadership in Schools and Area School Leadership –Professional Development Days –Grade Level Meetings –Data collection to inform instruction –Model partner reading Chicago School District Area 4 –Staff Development for Area 4 Spring 2006

53 Fluency Snapshot and Matching Text Debra Gurvitz Christine Seidman

54 Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) Classroom Fluency Snapshot Collection of 1 minute reading samples All students read the same grade level passage

55 Why Use Quick initial screening –Hear every student read orally Instructional Uses –Instructional Groups for Guided Reading –Pairing for Partner Reading –Match students to leveled materials Independent Reading 98% accuracy Instructional reading 95% accuracy Informs oral fluency-- RACE –Rate –Accuracy –Comprehension (limited) –Expression

56 Administer Copy of text to be read –Number on recording sheet –Student reads original text Stop watch or clock with second hand –One minute Ask question or 2 after (optional)

57 Administer--Record Errors Anything different from the text that is not corrected – put line through the word missed Mispronunciation (if accent or dialect not as error) Substitutions (even if they mean the same) Omission Words you supply after 2/3 seconds Repeated miscuescount each time Incorrect proper names –Multiple counted only one time

58 Not Counted as Errors Dont countbut note –self-corrections –hesitations –repetitions –insertions –punctuation

59 Scoring Words Per Minute Count words read per minute Subtract miscues Total = amount of correct words read per minute

60 Look at Rate Best is the Hasbrouck &Tindal –Best norms for Fall, Winter, Spring National Norms Local Norms Classroom Norms Grade Level WPM 1.830-54 2.866-104 3.886-124 4.895-130 5.8108-140 6.8112-145 7.8122-155 8.8136-167

61 Look at Accuracy Key: Were they accurate but slow or were they fast and not accurate Understand what is happening Very accurate and slow For instructional level reading with support of teacher, group or tutor at least 95%(as close as you can get)

62 Things to Remember All students read same text Reading is timed ( 1 minute) Accuracy is recorded Correct WCMP ( words per minute) are charted

63 References Allington, R. L.(2006). What really matters for struggling readers: Designing research-based programs. (2 ND Edition). New York: Allyn& Bacon. Blachowicz, C., Sullivan, D., Ciepley, C. (2001). Fluency Snapshots: A quick screening tool for your classroom. Reading Psychology, 22, 95-109. Johns, J. L. (2005). Basic reading inventory. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Moskal, M., Blachowicz, C.(2006). Partnership for fluency. NY: Guilford Rasinski, T., Blachowicz, C., Lems, K (Eds). Fluency instruction: Research- based best practices. NY: Guildford. Rasinski, T. (2004). Creating fluent readers,. Educational Leadership, 61, 1-9. Short, D. & Fitzsimmons, S. (2007). Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring language and academic literacy for adolescent English Language Learners – A report to the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

64 Contact Information Donna Ogle, National-Louis University Amy Correa, NLU/CPS

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