6What is reading? WHAT DOES READING LEAD TO? RESPONSES KNOWLEDGE, NEW UNDERSTANDING, PERFORM REQUIRED ACTIONDECODES
7What is reading? WHAT DOES READING INVOLVE? identifying the words in print (word recognition),constructing an understanding from them (comprehension)identifying words and making meaning so that reading is automatic and accurate (fluency)
8What is reading?Reading in general is defined as interpreting means reacting to a written text as piece of communication. In other words, we assume some communicative intent on the writer’s part which the reader has some purpose in attempting to understand. Reading in its fullest sense involves weaving together word recognition and comprehension in a fluent manner. These three processes are complex, and each is important
9Reading PurposesWhat could the reading purpose of each person be?
10Reading purposes … There are 3 general categories of reading purposes: Reading for survivalReading for learningReading for pleasure
11Reading purposes … Why do people read and what motivates them to read? Survival in the real world (e.g. notices, train schedules, manuals etc.)Intellectual profit (useful content, understand the world better)Pleasure (gives pleasure e.g. reading literature)
12TAKE A BREAKList down all the kinds of texts (in any language) that you have read in the past one month. What kind of reading (survival, learning or pleasure) does each of the text represent? For example, hand phone manual (reading for survival/life-support system).
13Aims of teaching reading… The KSSR objectives for reading specifies that at the end of Year 6, students should be able to read and comprehend a range of English texts for information and enjoyment, as well as appreciate and demonstrate understanding of English language literary or creative works for enjoyment
14Aims of teaching reading… Help students become independent readers.Teach how to use context, dictionary, table of contents, etc.Develop response to a text.Develop creative and critical thinking when responding to a text.Help students read with adequate understanding.Read for meaning rather than reading words.Help pupils read at appropriate speed.Read different texts at different speeds.Help students read silently.Read silently - human mind and eye work faster than the mouth.
15Types of Classroom Reading Oral ReadingSilent ReadingIntensiveExtensive
16Oral reading… Beginning and intermediate levels Check on students’ processing skills and pronunciationEncourage active participationLearn to incorporate variations in pitch, tone, pace, volume, pauses, eye-contact, questions and comments in order to produce a fluent and enjoyable delivery.But not an authentic language activity
17Silent reading… Helps concentrate on what they are reading Form mental pictures of the topic being discussedDevelop strategies they need for reading fast, and with better comprehensionDevelop the skills of reading for a purpose - focus on understanding the content, not pronunciation2 major components: intensive and extensive reading.
18Silent reading: Intensive reading Reading to understand meaning in greater detailClassroom-oriented activity - focus on linguistic or semantic details of a passage (grammatical forms, discourse markers, etc.)2 advantages:Beginner & intermediate level of students - fastest way to build vocabulary. Advanced level students - encourage develop strategiesFocuses on items or strategies that apply to any text, requires students to read the text, provides useful feedback for the students and the teacher
19Silent reading: Extensive reading Mostly performed outside of the classroomBuilds confidence and enjoyment - comprehension of main ideas, not for specific details.Complements as extra-curricular activity where students read out of classAdvantages include developing reading habit amongst students, gaining more confidence in reading, improving their attitude towards reading and becoming more motivated to read.
20Factors Influencing Reading First language literacy,Level of proficiency in EnglishBackground knowledge
21Factors Influencing Reading… L1literacyinfluences speed & manner of reading in English.L1 reading ability may be easily transferred to English.Positive feeling towards L2 reading comes from positive attitude towards L1 reading (Yamashita, 2004)Teachers should understand learners' reading attitudes in the first as well as in the second language.
22Factors Influencing Reading… Level of proficiency in EnglishSkilled L1 readers resort to employing poor reading strategies due to lack of L2 proficiencyThey may face problems with relating the printed words with oral knowledge and using it, understanding concepts in print, and predicting what will be encountered in print.Teachers should maintain an integrated approach to readingEngage students in the oral use of the language surrounding the topic that is being read.
23Factors Influencing Reading… Background KnowledgeAllow relate text to their previous experiences - reading bocomes more personalActivating prior knowledge (schemata) - most important aspect of the reading experience.Teachers should ensure students have prior knowledge on the subject related to the reading text in order to assist them in comprehending the textText selection based on students’ prior knowledge, cultural background and interests
24LET’S DISCUSS In a small group, ask each other about learning to read. How did you learn to read your native language?How did you learn to read in the second language?How did your teacher manage the reading lessons?Do you think there were differences in learning to read your first and second languages? If so, what are some of these differences?