Presentation on theme: "What are the elements of an effective Classroom Environment? Angela E. Poole Literacy Specialist."— Presentation transcript:
What are the elements of an effective Classroom Environment? Angela E. Poole Literacy Specialist
Classroom Environment …students in literate classrooms where they are expected to be successful readers and writers who talk, read, and write daily, tend to outperform students in classrooms where these environmental features are less prevalent. Roskos,K., & Neuman, S. (2002). Environment and its early influences for early literacy teaching and learning. In K. Dickinson, & S. Neuman (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 26-33). New York: The Guilford Press.
Classroom environment has been shown to affect student literacy achievement. The purpose of examining the classroom environment is to support educators in creating the most effective literacy setting.
Classroom Environment Please complete the following brainstorming activity. What elements of classroom environment support student literacy achievement? Classroom Environment ????????
Classroom Environment Environmental Print Posted student work that reflects curriculum under study Classroom Libraries Opportunities for social interactions and response to text Time to select books and read independently Access to a variety of books Well Defined spaces Word Walls
Extrinsic Elements of an effective Classroom Environment Environmental print includes current student work, print featuring aspects of the curriculum under study, word walls, and labeled areas and items throughout the classroom. Classroom libraries are organized and include a wide variety of genres representing several cultures and have reading levels on, above, and below grade level. Classroom organization supports literacy by inviting social interaction and by providing well defined spaces.
Students who are motivated to read will read more and are better readers (Allington, 2001). Allington, R. (2001) What really matters for struggling readers designing research-based programs. Boston: Addison Wesley Longman.
Intrinsic elements of an effective Classroom Environment The daily schedule provides time for students to be engaged in independent reading. Students have opportunities to respond to text in a variety of ways (both written and oral). Achievement percentile Minutes of reading per day Words per year 90 th 50 th 40.4 12.9 2,357,000 601,000 10 th 1.6 51,000 Reading Volume of fifth-grade students of different levels of achievement. Adapted from Anderson, Wilson, and Fielding (1988) (as cited in Allington, 2001).
Intrinsic elements of an effective Classroom Environment Students have access to reading and writing materials in classrooms, school libraries and at home. Student have opportunities to select meaningful texts for independent reading. Social interaction and active participation are critical components of reading instruction. Books at Home and School A study by Smith, Constantino and Krashen (1997), recorded the number of children’s books available in the homes and classrooms located in schools in three different communities (as cited in Allington, 2001). Their findings point to the enormous inequity in access to books that exists in the United States. Books at homeIn classroom library Middle income 199 392 Lower income 2.6 54 Lowest income.4 47
Read Aloud The purpose of reading aloud is to build vocabulary, improve listening skills, reading comprehension abilities, and attitudes toward reading. Office of literacy (2004). Observation Guide Handbook k-3. Chicago Public Schools.
Read Aloud During read aloud, students are exposed to vocabulary and written language syntax that they are unlikely to encounter in their daily oral language.
Read Aloud Exposure to the more sophisticated vocabulary and syntax found in written text is a critical component in building comprehension skills (Rasinski, 2003). Rasinski, T. (2003). The Fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic Professional Books.
The role of the teacher and student before read aloud Role of the teacher: To establish a literacy rich environment that fosters a favorable attitude toward reading that includes quality children’s literature or other text related to curriculum unit or theme. To engage students’ prior knowledge. To determine a purpose for the read aloud selection. Role of the student: To connect new concepts and vocabulary to prior experience. To understand that print carries a message in literature.
The role of the teacher and student during read aloud Role of the teacher: To model appropriate reading behavior. To reread favorite books. To help students make extensive connections to other texts, the world, and/or self through discussion. Role of the student: To make connections to ideas, events, and concepts. To enjoy listening to and discussing literature that is read aloud.
The role of teacher and student after read aloud Role of the teacher: To discuss and make connections to relevant vocabulary and content. To comment on and reinforce what students are able to do well. To provide opportunities for students to respond to read aloud. Role of the student: To make connections to relevant concepts. To demonstrate comprehension by making predictions, summarizing, retelling, and/or describing the read aloud selection.
Teacher preparation for read aloud: Pre-read and re-read selection. Consider reading goals. Identify the reading strategy or concept to be taught. Anticipate where background knowledge needs to be built. Highlight places to stop, question, make predictions, or make connections. Determine discussion questions before the lesson. Practice reading the selection using gestures and voice intonation. Plan before, during, and after reading activities to enhance comprehension.
Read Aloud strategies: Before Reading Activate prior knowledge Discuss unusual vocabulary or concepts Make Predictions Identify author, title, setting, characters, background Picture walk KWL Anticipation guide
Read Aloud strategies: During Reading Response and dialogue throughout reading Help students notice features of narrative/information al texts Share, discuss, ask questions, confirm or change predictions Story map Graphic organizers
Read Aloud strategies: After Reading Elicit student response Reflect on text, connecting to self, world and other text Confirm predictions Refer back to the text KWL Story map Graphic organizers
Book Look Choose a book to read aloud. Determine your purpose for reading aloud the text you selected. How will you accomplish your purpose before, during and after reading? Before ReadingDuring ReadingAfter Reading
References Allington, R. (2001). What really matters for struggling readers designing research-based programs. Boston: Addison Wesley Longman. Rasinski, T. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic Professional Books. Roskos, K., & Neuman, S. (2002). Environment and its early influences for early literacy teaching and learning. In K. Dickinsion, & S. Neuman (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 26-33). New York: The Guilford Press. Excellent web site resources: http://reading.uoregon.edu/index.php http://www.readingrockets.org/ http://www.earlyliterature.ecsd.net http://www.toread.com/ http://www.ldonline.org/ http://www.ncrel.org/ Download DIBELS and ISEL at these web sites: http://www2.nl.edu/reading_center/ http://dibels.uoregon.edu/ These sites are dedicated to building classroom libraries inexpensively: http://www.colorcodedbooks.org/lef/index.htm http://www.colorcodedbooks.org/index2.html http://www.rif.org/