Presentation on theme: "Reciprocal Teaching: A Platform for Strategic ESL Instruction, Classroom Teacher Collaboration, & Renewal John Helfeldt, Texas A&M University Betty Helfeldt."— Presentation transcript:
1 Reciprocal Teaching: A Platform for Strategic ESL Instruction, Classroom Teacher Collaboration, & RenewalJohn Helfeldt, Texas A&M UniversityBetty Helfeldt & Ann McMullinCollege Station Independent School District, TX52nd International Reading Association ConventionToronto, 2007Contact Info:
2 Reciprocal Teaching (RT) Can you describe or define RT?Do you use RT during reading instruction?How intensively/extensively do you teach RT?Have you encountered problems during implementation of RT?
3 RT widely researched and reported in journals (1984 – 2006) Most studies support RT’s effectivenessVast majority of articles are reports of researchFocus on describing subjects, day treatments, data analyses & resultsFar less written re: implementation of RT teaching procedure (Hacker & Tenant, 2002,Oczkus, 2003)
4 Far Fewer RT studies involving ESL S’s Knight, Padron’ & Waxman (1985) Investigated Strategy use of ESL S’sMonolingual S’s more strategic than ESLMonolingual S’s used predicting, questioning, imagingESL S’s most concerned with S’s perceptions of teacher expectations
5 Findings & Implications LEP S’s not taught strategies until English is fully masteredESL instruction centered on pronunciation, word meaningMany teachers assume S’s aren’t able to comprehend L2 text until fluently speaking L2
6 RT instruction is beneficial for ESL S’s Padron’ (1992) found that:RT more beneficial than QAR and ControlsRT used summary and self generated questions more than other S’sGr. 5 more strategic than Gr. 3LEP S’s should get strategy instruction along with other reading and language
7 Klingner & Vaughn (1996) found that: 7th & 8th Gr. ESL S’s benefited from RTGreater range of S’s benefited than anticipatedOral language proficiency benefited along with reading comprehensionFull proficiency not needed before implementing strategy instruction
8 Fung, Wilkinson, & Moore (2003) researched RT with 6th & 7th Gr Fung, Wilkinson, & Moore (2003) researched RT with 6th & 7th Gr. Bilingual S’sRT in L1 and L2 on alternating daysRT in L1 facilitated RT in L2RT increased English Reading Comprehension
9 What do we know about implementing RT STRATEGY? Pressley & Harris (1990):Teach 1 or 2 strategies over several weeksProvide S’s with understanding when & how to use strategyParis, Lipson, Wixson (1983)Levels of strategic knowledgeDeclarative, Procedural, Conditional
10 IT TAKES TIME!! & IT TAKES COMMITMENT! Hacker & Tenant (2002)Scarce data re: number of teachers using RT, but implementation problems are not uncommonTeachers construct their own versions of RT over time3 basic adaptations of RTdiffering emphases on component strategiesWriting frequently added
11 ConclusionPractice of RT changed over time and in response to many variables.Future attempts to implement RT may meet with even greater success if teachers: receive adequate training in traditional RT, are encouraged to construct their own practice of RT using prior knowledge about it, are provided with sustained feedback from knowledgeable RT person.
12 What Stimulated Ann’s Involvement with RT? ESL Students “savvy”, active learners in classroom
41 Impact on ESL Students Reading Proficiency Test in English Oral Language Proficiency TestTexas Assessment of Knowledge & Skills (TAKS)
42 Impact on Classroom Students TAKS Results93% S’s met standard27% S’s commended level7% did not meet standard (2 S’s)
43 Student Survey Responses During 4th Gr. My reading attitude has been: 65% much better, 29% little better, 3% same, 3% much worse
44 The most helpful strategy: 41% ALL 19% clarifying, 19% summarizing 9% predicting, 6% questioning, 6% noneDuring 4th Gr. My ability to read science text is now: 57% much better, 37% little better, 3% same, 3% little worse
45 Observations, Comments, Anecdotes Principal “Language Arts/Reading Class is the only place where some of these kids don’t cause problems or get in trouble.”TeachersChildrenParents
46 ReferencesFung, I., Wilkinson, I.A. & Moore, D. W. (2003). L1-assisted reciprocal teaching to improve ESL students’ comprehension of English expository text. Learning and Instruction, 13, (1), 1-31.Hacker, D. J. & Tenent, A. (2002). Implementing reciprocal teaching in the classroom: Overcoming obstacles and making modifications. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, (4),Klingner, J.K. & Vaughn, S. (1996). Reciprocal teaching of reading comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use English as a second language. The Elementary School Journal, 96, (3),Knight, S. L., Padron’, Y. L. & Waxman, H. C. (1985). The cognitive reading strategies of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 19, (4),
47 Oczkus, L. D. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Padron’, Y.L. (1992). The effect of strategy instruction on bilingual students’ cognitive strategy use in reading. Bilingual Research Journal, 16, (3&4),Palincsar, A.S.& Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2,Paris, S.G., Lipson, M. Y. & Wixson, K.K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8,Pressley, M. & Harris, K. R. (1990) What we really know about strategy instruction. Educational Leadership, 48, (1),
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