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Reciprocal Teaching: A Platform for Strategic ESL Instruction, Classroom Teacher Collaboration, & Renewal John Helfeldt, Texas A&M University Betty Helfeldt.

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Presentation on theme: "Reciprocal Teaching: A Platform for Strategic ESL Instruction, Classroom Teacher Collaboration, & Renewal John Helfeldt, Texas A&M University Betty Helfeldt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reciprocal Teaching: A Platform for Strategic ESL Instruction, Classroom Teacher Collaboration, & Renewal John Helfeldt, Texas A&M University Betty Helfeldt & Ann McMullin College Station Independent School District, TX 52 nd International Reading Association Convention Toronto, 2007 Contact Info:

2 Reciprocal Teaching (RT) Can you describe or define RT? Do you use RT during reading instruction? How intensively/extensively do you teach RT? Have you encountered problems during implementation of RT?

3 RT widely researched and reported in journals (1984 – 2006) Most studies support RTs effectiveness Vast majority of articles are reports of research Focus on describing subjects, day treatments, data analyses & results Far less written re: implementation of RT teaching procedure (Hacker & Tenant, 2002,Oczkus, 2003)

4 Far Fewer RT studies involving ESL Ss Knight, Padron & Waxman (1985) Investigated Strategy use of ESL Ss Monolingual Ss more strategic than ESL Monolingual Ss used predicting, questioning, imaging ESL Ss most concerned with Ss perceptions of teacher expectations

5 Findings & Implications LEP Ss not taught strategies until English is fully mastered ESL instruction centered on pronunciation, word meaning Many teachers assume Ss arent able to comprehend L2 text until fluently speaking L2

6 RT instruction is beneficial for ESL Ss Padron (1992) found that: RT more beneficial than QAR and Controls RT used summary and self generated questions more than other Ss Gr. 5 more strategic than Gr. 3 LEP Ss should get strategy instruction along with other reading and language

7 Klingner & Vaughn (1996) found that: 7 th & 8 th Gr. ESL Ss benefited from RT Greater range of Ss benefited than anticipated Oral language proficiency benefited along with reading comprehension Full proficiency not needed before implementing strategy instruction

8 Fung, Wilkinson, & Moore (2003) researched RT with 6 th & 7 th Gr. Bilingual Ss RT in L1 and L2 on alternating days RT in L1 facilitated RT in L2 RT increased English Reading Comprehension

9 What do we know about implementing RT STRATEGY? Pressley & Harris (1990): Pressley & Harris (1990): Teach 1 or 2 strategies over several weeks Teach 1 or 2 strategies over several weeks Provide Ss with understanding when & how to use strategy Provide Ss with understanding when & how to use strategy Paris, Lipson, Wixson (1983) Paris, Lipson, Wixson (1983) Levels of strategic knowledge Levels of strategic knowledge Declarative, Procedural, Conditional Declarative, Procedural, Conditional

10 IT TAKES TIME!! & IT TAKES COMMITMENT! Hacker & Tenant (2002) Hacker & Tenant (2002) Scarce data re: number of teachers using RT, but implementation problems are not uncommon Scarce data re: number of teachers using RT, but implementation problems are not uncommon Teachers construct their own versions of RT over time Teachers construct their own versions of RT over time 3 basic adaptations of RT 3 basic adaptations of RT differing emphases on component strategies differing emphases on component strategies Writing frequently added Writing frequently added

11 Conclusion Practice of RT changed over time and in response to many variables. Practice of RT changed over time and in response to many variables. Future attempts to implement RT may meet with even greater success if teachers: receive adequate training in traditional RT, are encouraged to construct their own practice of RT using prior knowledge about it, are provided with sustained feedback from knowledgeable RT person. Future attempts to implement RT may meet with even greater success if teachers: receive adequate training in traditional RT, are encouraged to construct their own practice of RT using prior knowledge about it, are provided with sustained feedback from knowledgeable RT person.

12 What Stimulated Anns Involvement with RT? ESL Students savvy, active learners in classroom

13 Why Reciprocal Teaching for ESL Students?

14 RT Addresses the ESL Domains

15 Speaking Speaking Listening Listening Reading Reading Writing Writing

16

17 Predicting 2-3 Weeks

18 Book Walks Book Walks Picture Walks Picture Walks Graphic Organizers Graphic Organizers Text Features Text Features

19 Clarifying 2-3 Weeks

20 Phonetic Spelling Phonetic Spelling Simplified Meanings Simplified Meanings Illustrations Illustrations Concrete Objects Concrete Objects

21 Questioning 2-3 Weeks

22 Begin with literal questions: Begin with literal questions: Who, When, Where Who, When, Where

23 Utilize summary to develop question strategy Utilize summary to develop question strategy

24 Utilize questions as an assessment of language proficiency Utilize questions as an assessment of language proficiency

25 Why he like chicken? Why he like chicken? Where dit Senora Amelia try to get a bicycle for Amelia? Where dit Senora Amelia try to get a bicycle for Amelia? What did all the stores say? What did all the stores say? Did Senora Amelia get the bicycle? Did Senora Amelia get the bicycle?

26 The Five Ws

27 Who? Characters and Their Relationship

28 Summarization 2-3 Weeks Initially

29 When? Time – Period, context, etc.

30 Where? Place

31 What? Events or Happenings

32 Why? Reason for Events or Happenings

33 Teaching the 5 Ws: Shared Reading for several weeks Shared Reading for several weeks Shared Writing for Several Weeks Shared Writing for Several Weeks

34 Teaching the 5 Ws: Guided Reading &Writing for Several Weeks Guided Reading &Writing for Several Weeks Guided Reading & Writing Thereafter Guided Reading & Writing Thereafter

35 Experienced a Sense of Renewal ExcitementExcitement EnergyEnergy RenewalRenewal

36 Professional Collaboration ModelingModeling PracticePractice CoachingCoaching ValidationValidation

37 Eagerness to learnEagerness to learn ConfidenceConfidence FlexibilityFlexibility Cooperative learnersCooperative learners STUDENT ENGAGEMENT

38 Personal Construction of RT Flexible Grouping (including whole class)Flexible Grouping (including whole class) Student Writing EmphasizedStudent Writing Emphasized Shared ReadingShared Reading Guided ReadingGuided Reading Parent RT AcademyParent RT Academy

39 RT as Springboard Leadership in Professional DevelopmentLeadership in Professional Development Working with other teachersWorking with other teachers Enhanced CommunicationEnhanced Communication Integrated CurriculumIntegrated Curriculum

40 But...does RT really work?

41 Impact on ESL Students Reading Proficiency Test in English Reading Proficiency Test in English Oral Language Proficiency Test Oral Language Proficiency Test Texas Assessment of Knowledge & Skills (TAKS) Texas Assessment of Knowledge & Skills (TAKS)

42 Impact on Classroom Students TAKS Results TAKS Results 93% Ss met standard 93% Ss met standard 27% Ss commended level 27% Ss commended level 7% did not meet standard (2 Ss) 7% did not meet standard (2 Ss)

43 Student Survey Responses During 4 th Gr. My reading attitude has been: 65% much better, 29% little better, 3% same, 3% much worse During 4 th Gr. My reading attitude has been: 65% much better, 29% little better, 3% same, 3% much worse

44 The most helpful strategy: 41% ALL 19% clarifying, 19% summarizing 9% predicting, 6% questioning, 6% none The most helpful strategy: 41% ALL 19% clarifying, 19% summarizing 9% predicting, 6% questioning, 6% none During 4 th Gr. My ability to read science text is now: 57% much better, 37% little better, 3% same, 3% little worse During 4 th Gr. My ability to read science text is now: 57% much better, 37% little better, 3% same, 3% little worse

45 Observations, Comments, Anecdotes Principal Language Arts/Reading Class is the only place where some of these kids dont cause problems or get in trouble. Principal Language Arts/Reading Class is the only place where some of these kids dont cause problems or get in trouble. Teachers Teachers Children Children Parents Parents

46 References Fung, I., Wilkinson, I.A. & Moore, D. W. (2003). L1-assisted reciprocal teaching to improve ESL students comprehension of English expository text. Learning and Instruction, 13, (1), Fung, I., Wilkinson, I.A. & Moore, D. W. (2003). L1-assisted reciprocal teaching to improve ESL students comprehension of English expository text. Learning and Instruction, 13, (1), Hacker, D. J. & Tenent, A. (2002). Implementing reciprocal teaching in the classroom: Overcoming obstacles and making modifications. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, (4), Hacker, D. J. & Tenent, A. (2002). Implementing reciprocal teaching in the classroom: Overcoming obstacles and making modifications. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, (4), Klingner, J.K. & Vaughn, S. (1996). Reciprocal teaching of reading comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use English as a second language. The Elementary School Journal, 96, (3), Klingner, J.K. & Vaughn, S. (1996). Reciprocal teaching of reading comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use English as a second language. The Elementary School Journal, 96, (3), Knight, S. L., Padron, Y. L. & Waxman, H. C. (1985). The cognitive reading strategies of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 19, (4), Knight, S. L., Padron, Y. L. & Waxman, H. C. (1985). The cognitive reading strategies of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 19, (4),

47 Oczkus, L. D. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Oczkus, L. D. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Padron, Y.L. (1992). The effect of strategy instruction on bilingual students cognitive strategy use in reading. Bilingual Research Journal, 16, (3&4), Padron, Y.L. (1992). The effect of strategy instruction on bilingual students cognitive strategy use in reading. Bilingual Research Journal, 16, (3&4), Palincsar, A.S.& Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension- fostering and comprehension monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2, Palincsar, A.S.& Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension- fostering and comprehension monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2, Paris, S.G., Lipson, M. Y. & Wixson, K.K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, Paris, S.G., Lipson, M. Y. & Wixson, K.K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, Pressley, M. & Harris, K. R. (1990) What we really know about strategy instruction. Educational Leadership, 48, (1), Pressley, M. & Harris, K. R. (1990) What we really know about strategy instruction. Educational Leadership, 48, (1),


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