Presentation on theme: "Reading Procedures: MODELLED READING Presenter: Duane Smith Principal Project Officer South East Region."— Presentation transcript:
Reading Procedures: MODELLED READING Presenter: Duane Smith Principal Project Officer South East Region
Reading Procedures The ultimate aim of any reading program is to produce confident, competent and independent readers. The strategic use of a range of reading procedures ensures this as it provides a strong foundation for a comprehensive reading program. Each reading procedure involves varying degrees of responsibility for both the teacher and the student Using a selective range of reading procedures ensures that explicit instruction and guidance, when needed, is balanced with regular opportunities for the independent application of skills and strategies.
What are Reading Procedures? Reading procedures provide meaningful contexts for focusing on selected parts of the reading process Characterised by a number of widely accepted steps or stages, conducted frequently and applicable to all phases of reading development
Selecting Reading Procedures What is the purpose of the session? Which reading procedure will allow for the appropriate degree of student participation? What resources will be required? How will students be grouped? What will be planned for other students while working with a small group? What classroom routines are in place to enable students to work independently?
7 Reading Procedures Reading to Students Modelled Reading Language Experience Shared Reading Guided Reading Book Discussion Groups Independent Reading
Modelling Reading Definition: Demonstrating reading behaviours and verbalising the cognitive processes involved in those behaviours
Modelling Reading Description: a reading procedure that focuses on the explicit planning and demonstrations of selected reading behaviours, including the demonstration of comprehension and word identification strategies Most effective when used immediately before students are asked to “have-a-go” Use enlarged texts
Key Features of Modelled Reading Clear ‘think aloud’ statements are used The focus is singular or limited in a session The same behaviour is modelled many times Sessions are most effective when kept brief
Modelled Reading: the Benefits Modelled Reading helps students to: understand how effective readers read and process text gain a deeper understanding of when how and why particular reading strategies are used by effective readers see how a particular text form can be read build their understanding of the English language understand how reading and writing are related
Suggestions for Using Modelled Reading in the Classroom Planning for Modelled Reading Determine the focus of the session and choose a text that allows multiple demonstrations of a particular reading behaviour Pre-read the text to determine the places where a think aloud statement will be used to demonstrate a specific reading behaviour Consider the language that will be used at each selected place in a text
Conducting Modelled Reading Sessions Explain to students the reading behaviour that will be demonstrated and why the text was chosen Introduce the text. Pause at a pre-determined place in the text to think aloud and to demonstrate the behaviour Continue explicit demonstrations of the selected behaviour including thinking aloud. Students may ask questions to clarify their understanding of the text; however, the focal point of the session should be the ‘thinking aloud’ by the teacher After modelling with the text, review the selected focus If appropriate, involve the students in creating a record of the reading behaviours. As only one or two behaviours are usually modelled at any one time, this chart would be cumulative. Continue from here…..
After Modelled Reading After many modelled reading sessions with the same focus, it is important for students to take part in Shared, Guided or Independent Reading sessions. These sessions will provide opportunities to practise and apply the new behaviours.
Ideas for Assessment Within the Modelled Reading session, there is little opportunity to gather information about the students. However, during Shared, Guided and Independent Reading sessions teachers will be able to observe students applying previously modelled behaviours.
Reflecting on the Effective Use of the Modelled Reading Procedure Did I keep the session short and sharp? (5-10 mins) Did I focus on the selected behaviour? Did I use think aloud effectively as part of my demonstration? Did the students stay focused and attend to the demonstration?
Reading Strategies During the reading process, prior knowledge must be activated and accessed to help make sense of the information in the text. Reading strategies are the mental processes used when identifying unknown words, comprehending text and accessing and using information. The explicit teaching of reading strategies is vital to ensure that students are able to successfully use their prior knowledge to achieve a purpose.
Why Teach Strategies? Students must acquire a knowledge of: a growing list of sight words graphophonic elements grammatical features of the English language text structures and organisation topics and concepts cultural and world matters Explicit demonstrations, on-going scaffolding and opportunities to practise and apply reading strategies will support all readers to identify unknown words, prepare for, monitor and adjust their reading.
A List of Reading Strategies PredictingSelf-questioningRe-reading ConnectingSkimmingReading on ComparingScanningAdjusting reading rate InferringDetermining importanceSounding out SynthesisingSummarising and Paraphrasing Chunking Creating imagesConsulting a referenceUsing analogy First Steps in Reading: Reading Resource Book 2 nd ed. (2003) p. 114
Teaching Strategies Each and every strategy associated with identifying unknown words and comprehending texts must be taught explicitly Before strategies can be taught, teachers must have an understanding of what efficient readers do and the strategies they use when reading The goal is for all students to select and use appropriate strategies flexibly and independently during any reading event
How to Teach the Strategies Students should be introduced to a variety of strategies and understand how these strategies work together Focus on an individual reading strategy where it is introduced (modelling, sharing, guiding and applying) and practised time A unit of work focussing on one strategy may consist of a combination of demonstrations, think-alouds, time for practice, and opportunities to apply the strategy across other curriculum areas
Selecting Texts for Modelled Reading A variety of texts
Using a Range of Reading Procedures Provides a strong foundation for a comprehensive reading program Produces confident, competent and independent readers Each reading procedure involves varying degrees of responsibility for both the teacher and the student Using a selective range ensures that explicit instruction and guidance is balanced with regular opportunities for the independent application of skills and strategies