3What is Positive Behavior Intervention & Support? Positive Behavioral Support (PBIS) refers to the application of positive behavioral interventions and systems to achieve socially important behavior change.(OSEP, 1999)
4What is Positive Behavior Intervention & Support? PBIS fosters a positive climate to promote behavioral and academic success.
5PBIS in North Carolina By the end of 07-08: 102 of 115 LEAs had at least one school participating691 school teams trained in at least Module OneLegislature approved full-time PBIS consultant
6Why should schools and communities be interested in PBIS?
7Why PBIS? Problems are increasing. Typical responses are unclear, inconsistent, & reactive.Schools implementing comprehensive PBIS see long-term changes.Reduction of office discipline referrals & suspensionsIncreased staff morale and retentionPositive school climates and increased student achievement
8What happens if we do not intervene? Three years after leaving school, 70% of antisocial youth have been arrested (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).82% of crimes are committed by people who have dropped out of school (APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993).The stability of aggression over a decade is very high; about the same as IQ (Walker et al., 1995).What Happens If We Do Not Intervene?At risk juveniles cost society $1 million each over their life time.The stability of aggression over a decade—if we see aggressive 3 year olds, we will see aggressive 13 years olds. They do not grow out of aggressive behavior; they grow into more sophisticated strategies.References:Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth. (1993). Violence and youth: psychology’s response. Summary Report of the APA Commission on Violence and Youth. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
10Children with Emotional & Behavioral Disorders (2% identified EC) Lower grades; fail more courses & examsHeld back more oftenLower graduation ratesArrested more often (40%/1 yr – 60%/5yrs)More frequently placed in restrictive educational environmentsMore time in the Juvenile Justice System
11Common School Struggles Teachers leaving?Low staff and/or student morale?Poor attendance?High retention rates?High number of office referrals & suspensions?No clear vision?No ownership of the school?Every man for himself?Losing Instructional Time to discipline?No significant end of year growth?Multiple fragmented programs/initiatives?
12WHAT’S THE PAYOFF? More instructional time Improved attendance from staff and studentsIncreased student proficiencyIncreased parent participation and partnershipsImproved community involvement and supportLower staff attrition rates
15KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF PBIS Administrative LeadershipTeam-Based ImplementationDefine Behavioral ExpectationsTeach Behavioral ExpectationsAcknowledge & Reward Student & Adult PerformanceMonitor and Correct Behavioral ErrorsUse Data for Decision MakingBuild Parent Collaboration
16Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPositive Behavior Support GraphicThis graphic describes the interplay between the three elements needed to create systems of PBS. Each system supports the other.Supporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behaviorEmphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.PRACTICESPositiveBehaviorIntervention& SupportSupportingStudent Behavior
17Specialized, Individualized Tertiary Prevention:Specialized, IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings~80% of Students
18School-wide Prevention Responsive, positive school climateTeaching & supporting appropriate behavior for allData-based decision makingHigh academic standards, instruction & supportTeam problem solvingFamily & community involvement
19Secondary Prevention Small group social skills instruction & support MentoringMore structured support for academic and behavior successInstruction in monitoring and re-directing own behavior
20Tertiary Prevention & Intervention Individualized, intensive servicesDesigned to meet individual student needsFocus on teaching replacement behaviorAccomplished through individual data collection, FBA, BIP
21School Improvement Academic Behavior Targeted Group Interventions Small group instructionFocused academic helpsessionsIntensive, Individual InterventionsTutoringAcademic Remediation PlansSpecially Designed InstructionFunctional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention PlanningSocial Skills instructionReinforcement of specific skillsGroup Behavioral StrategiesClassroom CoachingUniversal InterventionsSchool-wide rules andproceduresSystematic reinforcementSocial Skills InstructionCulturally responsive practicesData-based decision-makingParent & Community PartnershipsEffective instructionalpracticesRecognition of academicachievementCulturally responsive practicesAcademicBehavior
22What is System of Care?Child-centered, family focused, and family driven; Community-based; and Culturally competent and responsive.
23What is a “System of Care”? A community-based System of Care is a comprehensive spectrum of services and supports organized into a coordinated network to meet the diverse and changing strengths and needs of children and youth with complex behavioral, educational, social and/or safety needs, and their families.
24SoCA System of Care integrates the work of education, juvenile justice, public health, mental health, child welfare, family court, and other helping organizations with families through team work and shared responsibility.
25SoC BenefitsA way of ‘doing business’ among professionals , families, and in the communityBeneficial to families and communities because it increases community services and resources, reduces unnecessary separation of children from their families, and actively supports the development of healthy and productive families
26SoC Benefits cont’dSupported by research and the accepted national ‘best practice model’ for delivering services and supports to children with complex needs and their families in a way that they can understand, starting where they are
27What is the Purpose?The purpose of a system of care is to make comprehensive, flexible and effective support available for children, youth and families throughout the community and through this assistance make the community a better place to live (Franz, 1999).Notice that System of Care in not just about mental health. It is about all of these agencies working together.
28Principles of System of Care: Interagency CollaborationIndividualized Strengths-Based CareCultural CompetenceChild and Family InvolvementCommunity-Based ServicesAccountabilityInteragency Collaboration: Services are planned in collaboration with all the child-serving systems involved in the child’s life. Representatives from all these systems and the family collaborate to define the goals for the child, develop a service plan, develop the necessary resources to implement the plan, provide appropriate support to the child and family, and evaluate progress.Individualized, Strengths Based Care: Services are planned to meet the individual needs of the child, rather than to fit the child into an existing service. Services consider the child’s family and community contexts, are developmentally appropriate and child-specific, and build on the strengths of the child and family to meet the mental health, social and physical needs of the child.Culturally competent: Culture determines our worldview and provides a general design for living and patterns for interpreting reality that are reflected in our behavior. Therefore, services that are culturally competent are provided by individuals who have the skills to recognize and respect the behavior, ideas, attitudes, values, beliefs, customs, language, rituals, ceremonies and practices characteristic of a particular group of people.Child and Family Involvement: The family is the primary support system for the child and it is important to help empower the family to advocate for themselves. The family participates as a full partner in all stages of the decision-making and service planning process including implementation, monitoring and evaluation. A family may include biological, adoptive and foster parents, siblings, grandparents, other relatives, and other adults who are committed to the child. The development of policy at state and local levels includes family representation.Community-based: Whenever possible, services are delivered in the child’s home community, drawing on formal and informal resources to promote the child’s successful participation in the community. Community resources include not only human service professionals and provider agencies, but also social, religious, cultural organizations and other natural community support networks.Accountability:
29Success, Safety and Permanency in Home, School and Community! OutcomesSuccess, Safety and Permanency in Home, School and Community!
30Categorical vs. Non-Categorical System Reforms EducationCategorical System ReformsNon-Categorical System ReformsPires, S. (2002).Building Systems of Care: A Primer
32System of Care as Best Practice According to the Center for Mental Health Services, SAMHSA, Federal DHHS*:“ The System of Care offers the best possible programmatic, fiscal, and organizational context for implementing and sustaining evidenced-based interventions . . .”(*CMHS, 2004, Children’s Service Initiative)System of Care approach has been nationally recognized in numerous reports, such as the Presidents New Freedom Commission Report, The Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health, as the best practice model for service organization and delivery of services for children with complex emotional, safety, educational and/or behavioral problems and their families.
33NC SoC Handbook Revised Jan.06 Goal: To help families help their children succeed at home, in school, and in the communitySoC is considered the best way of planning, developing and delivering services to children and their familiesFundamentally changing the relationships families have to the service system at every level
34SoC HandbookMore than 200,000 children under the age of 18 in NC have a serious and emotional disturbanceThese children are at substantially greater risk for school dropout, school expulsion, drug or alcohol abuse, unplanned teen pregnancy and conviction of crimes
35SoC HandbookNC’s Mental Health systems continues to undergo reform and reorganization to better serve families and children through SoC approach
36SoC HandbookNC “Blueprint for Change” (Division of MH, DD, SAS State MH Plan 2003, Chapter 3) and 2003 “Child MH Plan (DMH, DD, SAS) identified core requirements and/or values for the future provision of children’s mental health services
37Core RequirementsFamilies will have meaningful input in all aspects of the planning, delivery, and evaluation of serviceFamilies and professionals working together maximize the benefits of the services renderedUtilize “best practice” models that include family support, family education, and family trainingCreate support systems to ensure family participation
38SoC HandbookSoC is based on a set of values and principals for local services and supports in communities across our stateSoC is not just a philosophy; it is a researched-based framework that helps communities and states put the philosophy into action by building structures and resources that make SoC work for children and their families
39SoC HandbookSoC looks different in each community it is based on the strength and needs of the families in those communities
40Outcomes of SoC Implementation Increase in school attendance and children finishing schoolSafer schoolsDecrease in home, school, and community violenceDecrease out of home placementDecrease in abuse and neglectDecrease in juvenile arrestsCreation of a child and family friendly SoCIncrease power of Advocacy for children and family issues in the political system at the state and local levelStronger children, youth, families and communities
42PBIS & Systems of Care PBIS aligns schools with SoC values PBIS creates a school culture and climate where staff work together as a team to support positive student behaviorPBIS results in improved outcomes for all studentsPBIS helps schools engage families and the community
43SOC PBIS Focus School as unit of implementation Connect social & academic achievementTeam-based leadershipCapacity buildingResearch-based principlesSustainable practicesData-based decision-makingChild & family as unit of implementationConnect social/ emotional with all aspects of lifeTeam decision-makingCapacity buildingSound guiding principles/valuesSustainable practicesData-based decision-making
45Benefits of Integration Enables PBIS schools to work better with children at secondary and tertiary levels.Enables all parties to come together around a single plan of care for each child.Helps PBIS schools engage families.
46Benefits of Integration SOC consultation can assist teachers in finding appropriate strategies for kids with mental health issues.Ability to build effective alliances between families, schools, & community agencies.
47Integrated PBIS/SOC Checklist School district has adopted PBIS.Schools and local mental health agencies are working together on PBIS implementation.District-wide PBIS implementation team includes representatives from local mental health agencies. School teams include MH representation.-From Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law “Checklist for Advocates of School-Wide PBIS Integrated with Mental Health”
48Integrated PBIS/SOC Checklist District and school teams include families.There is a MH-sponsored SOC in the community of the PBIS school.Local MH agency offers evidence-based practices with promise of good outcomes.-From Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law “Checklist for Advocates of School-Wide PBIS Integrated with Mental Health”
49Integrated PBIS/SOC Checklist Local PBIS schools have family liaisons.Families and youth are receiving PBIS training.Local PBIS initiative involves other community agencies (DSS, DJJDP, Health & Welfare centers).-From Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law “Checklist for Advocates of School-Wide PBIS Integrated with Mental Health”
50Integrated PBIS/SOC Checklist The PBIS school is measuring outcomes (ODRs, youth and family surveys, attendance, achievement).The district, schools, & agencies have explored all funding sources for Integrated PBIS/SOC implementation.-From Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law “Checklist for Advocates of School-Wide PBIS Integrated with Mental Health”
51ResourcesNC PBIS Training ModulesPresentations of Sandy Keenan, (Technical Assistance Partnership)Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Way to Go: School Success for Children with Mental Health Needs
52For more information… www.ncpublicschools.org/positivebehavior/ Heather Reynolds, PBIS ConsultantBehavior Support & Special ProgramsEC DivisionNC DPI