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Gender and Climate Change Financing Coming out of the Margins Mariama Williams

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Presentation on theme: "Gender and Climate Change Financing Coming out of the Margins Mariama Williams"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender and Climate Change Financing Coming out of the Margins Mariama Williams

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5 Gender and Climate Change Financing: Towards Engendering the Post 2012 financing Regime Facts, background, controversy surrounding financing Climate change (UNFCCC objective) Equity issues in climate change financing Facts, background, controversy surrounding financing Climate change (UNFCCC objective) Equity issues in climate change financing Gender: adaptation, mitigation and technology (addressed in module 4-6) Gender: adaptation, mitigation and technology (addressed in module 4-6) Legitimacy for en-gendering climate change financing: equity basis of UNFCCC Legitimacy for en-gendering climate change financing: equity basis of UNFCCC Key messages Key messages Part I: Gender and Financial Markets: brief over view Part I: Gender and Financial Markets: brief over view Myths about women and finance( whole group exercise) Myths about women and finance( whole group exercise) Stylized facts on gender and global finance & the state of play in Climate finance Stylized facts on gender and global finance & the state of play in Climate finance Part II the architecture and governance framework of climate change financing Part II the architecture and governance framework of climate change financing Public financing - Private sector financing (Carbon Financing) Public financing - Private sector financing (Carbon Financing) Other forms of Private sector financing - Innovative Financing Other forms of Private sector financing - Innovative Financing Small Group exercise with article on Gender and climate change financing, Philippines case study Small Group exercise with article on Gender and climate change financing, Philippines case study Part III. Details on specific Financing Mechanisms and Instruments Part III. Details on specific Financing Mechanisms and Instruments NAPA/NCs - CDM/REDD/LULUCF - MDG carbon facility/ Microfinance NAPA/NCs - CDM/REDD/LULUCF - MDG carbon facility/ Microfinance Small Group exercise with Bangladeshs and Burundis NAPA- financing exercise Small Group exercise with Bangladeshs and Burundis NAPA- financing exercise Part IV. Part IV. Summary/Post 2012 regime/Principles for gender sensitive financing framework Summary/Post 2012 regime/Principles for gender sensitive financing framework Proposals for Gender-sensitizing Climate Change Financing Proposals for Gender-sensitizing Climate Change Financing Coming soon: Gender and climate finance resources from GGCA Coming soon: Gender and climate finance resources from GGCA

6 Engendering Climate Change Finance Engendering Climate Change Finance Firewood or forest? Aim: 1. To develop understanding of the institutional architecture and governance of the climate change financing mechanisms, particularly as it relate to gender equality and womens empowerment outcomes 1. To develop understanding of the institutional architecture and governance of the climate change financing mechanisms, particularly as it relate to gender equality and womens empowerment outcomes 2. To utilize this understanding to advocate for gender equality in the distribution and mobilization of climate financing funds; and to ensure that mobilization of funds do not thwart womens empowerment projects. 2. To utilize this understanding to advocate for gender equality in the distribution and mobilization of climate financing funds; and to ensure that mobilization of funds do not thwart womens empowerment projects.

7 I. Background: The bare facts 1.Financing need for climate change: 1.Financing need for climate change: UNFCCC: US $ billion - $ billion per year by 2030 (UNFCCC 2008) UNFCCC: US $ billion - $ billion per year by 2030 (UNFCCC 2008) G77 and China (August 2008): Initial minimum: US $ $ billion per year (approximately equal to 0.5 – 1% of Annex I countries total GDP 2007) G77 and China (August 2008): Initial minimum: US $ $ billion per year (approximately equal to 0.5 – 1% of Annex I countries total GDP 2007) 2. Climate related funds under GEF, UNFCCC financing arm: 2. Climate related funds under GEF, UNFCCC financing arm: $10.03 billion billion plus a further $18.95 billion may be forthcoming from bilateral ($6.68 billion) and multilateral initiatives ($12.27 billion). $10.03 billion billion plus a further $18.95 billion may be forthcoming from bilateral ($6.68 billion) and multilateral initiatives ($12.27 billion). This is 1/10th of the minimum estimated requirement. This is 1/10th of the minimum estimated requirement. 3. GAP in financing: amount pledged is too low relative to the scale of financing needed 3. GAP in financing: amount pledged is too low relative to the scale of financing needed 4.There is a serious need to find alternative/innovative sources of funding for both adaptation and mitigation. 4.There is a serious need to find alternative/innovative sources of funding for both adaptation and mitigation. Adaptation deficit/development deficit/sustainable development Adaptation deficit/development deficit/sustainable development

8 Background … 5. Scaled up financing to fill the gap should come from 5. Scaled up financing to fill the gap should come from New and additional (to existing ODA flows) New and additional (to existing ODA flows) No double counting of ODA and climate financing No double counting of ODA and climate financing Rationale: Rationale: 0.7% of GNP target for ODA 0.7% of GNP target for ODA UNFCCC obligated to provide financing support for developing countries implementation of UNFCCC. Funding is supposed to be: adequate, additional, appropriate, equitable and predictable ( the Bali-5 principles). UNFCCC obligated to provide financing support for developing countries implementation of UNFCCC. Funding is supposed to be: adequate, additional, appropriate, equitable and predictable ( the Bali-5 principles). Adequate: (compensation, not loans or other forms of debt incurring instruments). Adequate: (compensation, not loans or other forms of debt incurring instruments). Additional: New (not counted as part of ODA flows), Additional: New (not counted as part of ODA flows), Appropriate: (polluter pays). Appropriate: (polluter pays). Equitable: (based on principle of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capacity). Equitable: (based on principle of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capacity). Predictable: (long term guaranteed flow of funds). Predictable: (long term guaranteed flow of funds). Financing should be consistent with the principle and obligations of the Convention Financing should be consistent with the principle and obligations of the Convention The rich countries have accepted, in principle, their responsibility for their predominantly large carbon foot prints and their historical role in the creation of the factors most implicated with rising atmospheric green house gases.The rich countries have accepted, in principle, their responsibility for their predominantly large carbon foot prints and their historical role in the creation of the factors most implicated with rising atmospheric green house gases. Under Kyoto, the rich countries committed to decrease GHG by 6-8% below 1990s level, the developing countries were exempted from this. Under Kyoto, the rich countries committed to decrease GHG by 6-8% below 1990s level, the developing countries were exempted from this. What is at stake: is just how much they are willing to put on the table? For how long? And, if and when, should more be required of the middle income and poorer nations?What is at stake: is just how much they are willing to put on the table? For how long? And, if and when, should more be required of the middle income and poorer nations?

9 II. Controversies in climate change financing A. Tug of war overThe adaptation deficit/development deficit: A. Tug of war overThe adaptation deficit/development deficit: Mitigation v. Adaptation: wither development.Mitigation v. Adaptation: wither development. -Single-minded focused on stabilizing or decreasing GHG emissions and engendering the transformation to low carbon economy.-Single-minded focused on stabilizing or decreasing GHG emissions and engendering the transformation to low carbon economy. Would seem to have shunted development to the back burner. Would seem to have shunted development to the back burner. To what extent can funds be segmented (isolate) for climate change from development, when in fact, the context of the developing countries, the two are inextricably intertwined. This is an issue for both adaptation and mitigation.To what extent can funds be segmented (isolate) for climate change from development, when in fact, the context of the developing countries, the two are inextricably intertwined. This is an issue for both adaptation and mitigation. Climate change is: Climate change is: a) not fundamentally a technical issue (it is also behavioral and structural) and a) not fundamentally a technical issue (it is also behavioral and structural) and b) cannot be simply a matter of funding purely techno-centric climate change initiatives isolated from the underlying concerns of economic development, poverty, gender and social inequality. b) cannot be simply a matter of funding purely techno-centric climate change initiatives isolated from the underlying concerns of economic development, poverty, gender and social inequality. The adaptation discussion, itself, is a disguise form of managing the tensions around development (and all that it encompasses) and the climate change policy & financing framework.The adaptation discussion, itself, is a disguise form of managing the tensions around development (and all that it encompasses) and the climate change policy & financing framework. The nature of the development-climate change nexus: The nature of the development-climate change nexus:

10 Controversies in climate change financing… Controversies in climate change financing… The nature of the development-climate change nexus: The nature of the development-climate change nexus: (i). The key developmental problematic, in the face of climate change, is the transformation and growth of the productive sectors of the economy from one that is mainly oriented to fossil based energy sources towards a low carbon economy. (i). The key developmental problematic, in the face of climate change, is the transformation and growth of the productive sectors of the economy from one that is mainly oriented to fossil based energy sources towards a low carbon economy. (ii). There are also critical questions about how rapidly should the de-carbonization occur and who should pay for it. (ii). There are also critical questions about how rapidly should the de-carbonization occur and who should pay for it. Clearly, either rapid or slower paced de-carbonization poses significant constraints on economic growth and development in the south. Clearly, either rapid or slower paced de-carbonization poses significant constraints on economic growth and development in the south. It also has implications for all of the productive sectors of the economy from agriculture, fishery, and forestry to industrial and services which also impinge on trade, industrial and service development, gender equality and poverty reduction policies and programs. It also has implications for all of the productive sectors of the economy from agriculture, fishery, and forestry to industrial and services which also impinge on trade, industrial and service development, gender equality and poverty reduction policies and programs. Social development issues are also impacted: choices must be made about the location, financing and climate proofing of housing and other human settlements, food self sufficiency and access to essential services (health care, sanitation, water). Social development issues are also impacted: choices must be made about the location, financing and climate proofing of housing and other human settlements, food self sufficiency and access to essential services (health care, sanitation, water). This raises the issue of land-use, land use change and the distribution of economic and social resources between women and men and among different communities. This raises the issue of land-use, land use change and the distribution of economic and social resources between women and men and among different communities.

11 Controversies in climate change financing… B. What needs to be funded ? Adaptation activities have been historically and systematically under funded Adaptation activities have been historically and systematically under funded Infrastructure (for all activities need to be funded) Infrastructure (for all activities need to be funded) It is already the case that in the developing countries 70-80% of the damages caused by weather is to infrastructure, compared to 40% in developed countries, (Hart 2007). It is already the case that in the developing countries 70-80% of the damages caused by weather is to infrastructure, compared to 40% in developed countries, (Hart 2007). Annual adaptation costs for developing countries is estimated to range anywhere from $4-37 billion, (Stern 2006), $28-$67 billion 2030 (UNFCCC 2007) and to $86 billion, 2015 (UNDP 2007). Annual adaptation costs for developing countries is estimated to range anywhere from $4-37 billion, (Stern 2006), $28-$67 billion 2030 (UNFCCC 2007) and to $86 billion, 2015 (UNDP 2007). The cost of mitigation is estimated to be about $ 176 billion to $200 billion. The cost of mitigation is estimated to be about $ 176 billion to $200 billion.

12 Adaptation Adaptation: 1) increase resilience; decrease impact of disasters 3) coping and relief to experience when damage occurs. UNDP 2007: annual adaptation investment need will be $86 billion by 2015 UNDP 2007: annual adaptation investment need will be $86 billion by 2015 World Bank: $10-40 billion by 2030 (WB 2009) World Bank: $10-40 billion by 2030 (WB 2009)

13 Controversies in climate change financing… Equity issues in climate change financing Equity issues in climate change financing What is the most just and equitable distribution of the costs and burdens of the adjustments to climate change? What is the most just and equitable distribution of the costs and burdens of the adjustments to climate change? Top 20% of the worlds population absorb 80% of its natural resources. Top 20% of the worlds population absorb 80% of its natural resources. Ecological foot print Ecological foot print Impact of CC on poor, women and indigenous peoples Impact of CC on poor, women and indigenous peoples Expectations by developing countries: Expectations by developing countries: Need for the re-allocation of global distribution of emission rights and obligations and compensation for losses and adjustment burdens. Need for the re-allocation of global distribution of emission rights and obligations and compensation for losses and adjustment burdens. The North pays for and subsidizes the Souths climate change engendered transformation to a low carbon economy. The North pays for and subsidizes the Souths climate change engendered transformation to a low carbon economy. The North should pay the extra cost of climate change mitigation. The North should pay the extra cost of climate change mitigation. Specifically, the south has consistently maintained that the North compensate it for its overuse of environmental space. reference Specifically, the south has consistently maintained that the North compensate it for its overuse of environmental space. reference

14 Controversies in climate change financing… D. HOW? Funding delivery mechanisms. D. HOW? Funding delivery mechanisms. Developed countries prefer to use: Developed countries prefer to use: Own bilateral channels or multilateral financial institutions such as the World Bank Own bilateral channels or multilateral financial institutions such as the World Bank -Market driven private sector financing -Market driven private sector financing Developing countries find that use of non UNFCCC channels: Developing countries find that use of non UNFCCC channels: 1) Weakens UNFCCC; 1) Weakens UNFCCC; 2) Distort the process and rationale for the financial flows as donor financing through non and 2) Distort the process and rationale for the financial flows as donor financing through non and 3) Violates the compensation principle. 3) Violates the compensation principle. Note: Developing countries also have a problem with GEF*. But it is preferred to non UNFCC channels such as the Bank which exposes them to potential debt accumulation and policy conditionalities Note: Developing countries also have a problem with GEF*. But it is preferred to non UNFCC channels such as the Bank which exposes them to potential debt accumulation and policy conditionalities

15 II. Gender and Climate Change essential linkages A. (Adaptation, mitigation and technology (addressed in module 4-6) A. (Adaptation, mitigation and technology (addressed in module 4-6) B. Legitimacy for en-gendering climate change financing B. Legitimacy for en-gendering climate change financing CEDAW CEDAW BPFA (strategic objectives F.1, para 167, F.4 (b) para 176; para 165k,) BPFA (strategic objectives F.1, para 167, F.4 (b) para 176; para 165k,) ECOSOC ECOSOC MEAs (Agenda 21 (chap 24), CBD, CDD) CSW 52 MEAs (Agenda 21 (chap 24), CBD, CDD) CSW 52 MDG (#3) MDG (#3) the Equity basis of UNFCCC the Equity basis of UNFCCC

16 Gender and Climate Change essential linkages The Equity principle of UNFCCC provides more than an adequate basis for integrating a gender equity approach into climate change financing. The Equity principle of UNFCCC provides more than an adequate basis for integrating a gender equity approach into climate change financing. The UNFCCC as the normative framework for climate change financing has provisions for equity and enshrines the rights of developing countries to develop in a steady state path. The UNFCCC as the normative framework for climate change financing has provisions for equity and enshrines the rights of developing countries to develop in a steady state path. Subsequent COP decisions have consistently re-affirmed the idea of targeting to the most vulnerable. Subsequent COP decisions have consistently re-affirmed the idea of targeting to the most vulnerable. However, there is no refinement on what exactly these are: countries, regions, villages, individuals (Garnaud 2009). However, there is no refinement on what exactly these are: countries, regions, villages, individuals (Garnaud 2009). The well accepted notion of differential potential across regions, communities (and individuals) to cope with climate induced changes along with differential vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities raises the question of equity and justice (TERI). The well accepted notion of differential potential across regions, communities (and individuals) to cope with climate induced changes along with differential vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities raises the question of equity and justice (TERI).

17 III. Key Messages To successfully adapt and mitigate the potential climate change upheavals to their lives women and girl will require increasing stocks of resources well beyond the current levels. To successfully adapt and mitigate the potential climate change upheavals to their lives women and girl will require increasing stocks of resources well beyond the current levels. They will also require continuous access to more dynamic flows of savings and credit to enable them to implement measure to climate proof and build climate resilience into their daily activities and livelihood domains. They will also require continuous access to more dynamic flows of savings and credit to enable them to implement measure to climate proof and build climate resilience into their daily activities and livelihood domains. There is a two-way intertwine between gender equality, womens empowerment and successful achievement of the climate change objectives of UNFCCC. There is a two-way intertwine between gender equality, womens empowerment and successful achievement of the climate change objectives of UNFCCC. Climate change financing by providing resources and open up the process for greater engagement and benefit flow to projects that are gender sensitive may reinforce the trend towards gender equality and women s empowerment. This will also improve the outcome of climate objectives. Climate change financing by providing resources and open up the process for greater engagement and benefit flow to projects that are gender sensitive may reinforce the trend towards gender equality and women s empowerment. This will also improve the outcome of climate objectives. Climate change financing, if it creates loss of access and control over land and forest resources or otherwise exacerbate womens access to resources, will further marginalize women. This will lead to counterproductive outcomes of climate objectives. Climate change financing, if it creates loss of access and control over land and forest resources or otherwise exacerbate womens access to resources, will further marginalize women. This will lead to counterproductive outcomes of climate objectives. Therefore, climate change financing instruments, mechanisms and processes must be made gender sensitive and conducive to the achievement of gender equality and womens empowerment goals. Therefore, climate change financing instruments, mechanisms and processes must be made gender sensitive and conducive to the achievement of gender equality and womens empowerment goals. The increasing focus on market driven financial instruments to manage climate poses dilemma for gender equality and womens empowerment. Financial markets are notorious for the rigidity of gender norms and gender biases which works to the disadvantage of women, especially poor women. The increasing focus on market driven financial instruments to manage climate poses dilemma for gender equality and womens empowerment. Financial markets are notorious for the rigidity of gender norms and gender biases which works to the disadvantage of women, especially poor women. Thus great care and attention needs to be focused on market activities and in ensuring the gender sensitive government regulations of the climate change financing market. Thus great care and attention needs to be focused on market activities and in ensuring the gender sensitive government regulations of the climate change financing market.

18 Key Messages… Mitigation funding streams will present more challenges for integrating a gender perspective. But through focused attention on CDM and REDD, there is scope for redirecting the focus to community-based and womens empowerment programmes. Mitigation funding streams will present more challenges for integrating a gender perspective. But through focused attention on CDM and REDD, there is scope for redirecting the focus to community-based and womens empowerment programmes. In the case of the carbon markets, more equitable burden sharing of the adjustment costs and benefits of transition to a low carbon economy could be enhanced by resort to governmental incentives such as tax breaks, grants and outright set aside programs for women and or indigenous groups. In the case of the carbon markets, more equitable burden sharing of the adjustment costs and benefits of transition to a low carbon economy could be enhanced by resort to governmental incentives such as tax breaks, grants and outright set aside programs for women and or indigenous groups. Carbon financing such as micro-finance and MDG carbon funds along some of the initiatives of regional development banks are evolving potentially useful pathways to really flexible development and gender sensitive climate financing oriented mechanisms. Carbon financing such as micro-finance and MDG carbon funds along some of the initiatives of regional development banks are evolving potentially useful pathways to really flexible development and gender sensitive climate financing oriented mechanisms. Governments play an important role in the market, and can redirect it towards gender- and development-friendly outcomes. Governments play an important role in the market, and can redirect it towards gender- and development-friendly outcomes. A key element in any program must include education, training and human resource development in the area of adaptation, mitigation and technology for girls and women. A key element in any program must include education, training and human resource development in the area of adaptation, mitigation and technology for girls and women. Gender advocates should focus attention on threshold issues such as the financial, time and physical resource costs of adapting to climate change that is incurred by particular groups of women such as agricultural food producers and fisher folks. Gender advocates should focus attention on threshold issues such as the financial, time and physical resource costs of adapting to climate change that is incurred by particular groups of women such as agricultural food producers and fisher folks. A gender sensitive climate risk assessment framework can be used to make these costs more visible. This can help to provide the basis for securing funding for gender equality objectives and womens economic empowerment in the context of the emerging climate change financing architecture. A gender sensitive climate risk assessment framework can be used to make these costs more visible. This can help to provide the basis for securing funding for gender equality objectives and womens economic empowerment in the context of the emerging climate change financing architecture. Such approaches are critical to the design, implementation of NAPAs and National communications strategies as well as the RAF and similar climate change financing assessment instruments. Such approaches are critical to the design, implementation of NAPAs and National communications strategies as well as the RAF and similar climate change financing assessment instruments.

19 Key messages Gender analyses, gender audits and gender impact assessments are important tools for promoting gender equity in access to, and gender equality outcomes of climate change funds in IFIs, regional, bilateral and national levels. Gender analyses, gender audits and gender impact assessments are important tools for promoting gender equity in access to, and gender equality outcomes of climate change funds in IFIs, regional, bilateral and national levels. There is a need for greater coherence of national and donor gender policy with development and climate change financing. There is a need for greater coherence of national and donor gender policy with development and climate change financing. Gender analysis and perspective must be integrated into the more progressive reform proposals for COP 15; in particular, those that seek to promote poverty eradication and sustainable development Gender analysis and perspective must be integrated into the more progressive reform proposals for COP 15; in particular, those that seek to promote poverty eradication and sustainable development

20 Part I: Gender and Financial Markets: brief over view Climate change financing occurs within the framework of the parameters, challenges and constraints of the global financial market. This is especially important given the emphasis on the role of private sector financing in the climate change financing process. Therefore it is important to understand the gender dynamics and dimension of this market. Climate change financing occurs within the framework of the parameters, challenges and constraints of the global financial market. This is especially important given the emphasis on the role of private sector financing in the climate change financing process. Therefore it is important to understand the gender dynamics and dimension of this market. Stylized facts on gender differential outcomes in the global financial market Stylized facts on gender differential outcomes in the global financial market Gender issues in climate change financing Gender issues in climate change financing Myths about women and finance whole (group exercise) Myths about women and finance whole (group exercise)

21 Gender Myths and Gender Realities Underlying Global Finance Dominant Myths and Assumptions. Dominant Myths and Assumptions. Women are less capable of economic success than menservice and credit to women is different from men Women are less capable of economic success than menservice and credit to women is different from men Women are risky borrowers Women are risky borrowers Women borrow for consumption without capacity for repayment Women borrow for consumption without capacity for repayment Realities Realities Women, in developing countries, have higher repayment rates than men (97% higher). Women, in developing countries, have higher repayment rates than men (97% higher). Women also borrow for short term liquidity purposes and have long run cash flow for repayment. Women also borrow for short term liquidity purposes and have long run cash flow for repayment. Womens so-called consumption goods such as refrigerators and stoves are often transformed into capital goods that produces other goods (ice, cooked food and services such as storage) that are sold in the informal and household economies. Womens so-called consumption goods such as refrigerators and stoves are often transformed into capital goods that produces other goods (ice, cooked food and services such as storage) that are sold in the informal and household economies. Womens ability to build capital and move into higher value activities are often blocked by asymmetry of information and high transactions costs. Womens ability to build capital and move into higher value activities are often blocked by asymmetry of information and high transactions costs.

22 Gender Segmentation in the Global financial markets Women tend to demand smaller loans than men Women tend to demand smaller loans than men Women tend to give credit to women Women tend to give credit to women Women borrow from special programs Women borrow from special programs Women face higher interest rates: this is a function of gender based adverse selection in borrow. Women face higher interest rates: this is a function of gender based adverse selection in borrow. In addition, womens lessened access and excess demand for credit (due to quantity rationing as opposed to price allocation) lead to higher interest rates In addition, womens lessened access and excess demand for credit (due to quantity rationing as opposed to price allocation) lead to higher interest rates

23 Stylized facts about gender and finance Pervasive inequalities between women and men in access to financial services--particularly credit. Pervasive inequalities between women and men in access to financial services--particularly credit. Although a growing number of policies and programs are arising to address the needs of the growing number of women business owners and their enterprises worldwide, access to finance is still the single biggest obstacle facing women entrepreneurs. The International Financial Corporation Although a growing number of policies and programs are arising to address the needs of the growing number of women business owners and their enterprises worldwide, access to finance is still the single biggest obstacle facing women entrepreneurs. The International Financial Corporation Collateral requirements, high transaction costs, limited mobility and education, and other social and cultural barriers contribute to women's inability to obtain credit (Holt and Ribe 1991, and World Bank). Collateral requirements, high transaction costs, limited mobility and education, and other social and cultural barriers contribute to women's inability to obtain credit (Holt and Ribe 1991, and World Bank).

24 Stylized facts about gender and finance Financial market interface with gender is characterized by: Financial market interface with gender is characterized by: I.Under-representation of women in financial decision-making (Men dominate decision-making in global finance, ) ii.Increase gender gaps in the economic positions of women and men (women have less access to credit, financial assets and information than men; women may also higher interest and other cost than men for similar services) iii.Inefficient resource allocation in financial markets due to gender discrimination (women face adverse selection insurance products and flow of investment funds and the allocation of economic resources) iv. Gender-based instability of financial markets (Male rent seeking behavior generate moral hazard and crises in the financial market Which may more negatively impact women in terms of unemployment and adjustment Other adjustment burdens)

25 Under-representation Men dominate decision-making in global finance, but women experience the greatest negative effects of these decisions (Grown et al. 2000). Men dominate decision-making in global finance, but women experience the greatest negative effects of these decisions (Grown et al. 2000). Womens under-representation in the formal sector is due to legal, regulatory, and socio-cultural barriers (IFC). Womens under-representation in the formal sector is due to legal, regulatory, and socio-cultural barriers (IFC). The predominant decision makers in many climate change institutional processes are men (bureaucrats, technical analysts, NGO representatives, extension workers and influential leaders at the community level, Boyd 2002). The predominant decision makers in many climate change institutional processes are men (bureaucrats, technical analysts, NGO representatives, extension workers and influential leaders at the community level, Boyd 2002). Men are biased towards providing technical solutions to the climate change problem and many men have little understanding of, or regard for, the concerns or interest of women (Boyd 2002). Men are biased towards providing technical solutions to the climate change problem and many men have little understanding of, or regard for, the concerns or interest of women (Boyd 2002).

26 Increase Gender Gaps the segmentation of financial markets, high administrative and transaction costs on the supply side (credit institutions) as well as on the demand side (individual female borrowers as compared with male borrowers) work to the detriment of women. Women face a triple jeopardy: the segmentation of financial markets, high administrative and transaction costs on the supply side (credit institutions) as well as on the demand side (individual female borrowers as compared with male borrowers) work to the detriment of women. Women face a triple jeopardy: 1) lenders may operate from a risk assessment framework that assigns high probability of default to small producers, many of whom are women; 1) lenders may operate from a risk assessment framework that assigns high probability of default to small producers, many of whom are women; 2) high administrative costs of extending and recovering small loans appropriate to the scale of economic activities and 2) high administrative costs of extending and recovering small loans appropriate to the scale of economic activities and 3) gender asymmetries in the flow of information about credit markets (carbon market, funding mechanisms). 3) gender asymmetries in the flow of information about credit markets (carbon market, funding mechanisms).

27 Inefficient Resource Allocation in Global and Climate Finance Inefficient Resource Allocation in Global and Climate Finance: The World Banks CIFs financing mechanisms (in operation in Azerbaijan and Georgie) injected inefficiency into the existing climate change architecture, which has negative impact on women (Zuckerman, Gender Action). Inefficient Resource Allocation in Global and Climate Finance: The World Banks CIFs financing mechanisms (in operation in Azerbaijan and Georgie) injected inefficiency into the existing climate change architecture, which has negative impact on women (Zuckerman, Gender Action). Perlata (2008, the Philippines): CDM mechanism manifest an inordinate reliance on market based solutions that excluded the poor. Perlata (2008, the Philippines): CDM mechanism manifest an inordinate reliance on market based solutions that excluded the poor. [This resulted from CDM processes being cumbersome and costly rendering small scale project with strong poverty alleviation impacts unviable and making it difficult for the poor to participate (Perlata 2008).] [This resulted from CDM processes being cumbersome and costly rendering small scale project with strong poverty alleviation impacts unviable and making it difficult for the poor to participate (Perlata 2008).] Carbon offset and carbon credit does not provide an adequate stream of accessible financing for the multitudinous and damaging impacts of climate change in the South. Carbon offset and carbon credit does not provide an adequate stream of accessible financing for the multitudinous and damaging impacts of climate change in the South. A focus on sinks, renewable energy, energy efficiency, GHG capture and storage, bio sequestration, all of which are centered on large scale capital intensive projects, may in fact have negative impacts on the women and indigenous groups, in terms of its impact on their access to resources and ownership tenure over land and other natural assets. A focus on sinks, renewable energy, energy efficiency, GHG capture and storage, bio sequestration, all of which are centered on large scale capital intensive projects, may in fact have negative impacts on the women and indigenous groups, in terms of its impact on their access to resources and ownership tenure over land and other natural assets.

28 Inefficient Resource Allocation in Global and Climate Finance Carbon offset and carbon credit needs to be weighted in terms of their effectiveness and efficiencies regarding social development against carbon taxes and other non market based adaptation financing measures. Carbon offset and carbon credit needs to be weighted in terms of their effectiveness and efficiencies regarding social development against carbon taxes and other non market based adaptation financing measures. Carbon credits are not naturally issued for the things women do. Many womens enterprises face significant structural impediments that impede their ability to function as sellers of carbon credit/offset. Apart from the aforementioned inefficient tendency of carbon offsetting, many womens projects. Carbon credits are not naturally issued for the things women do. Many womens enterprises face significant structural impediments that impede their ability to function as sellers of carbon credit/offset. Apart from the aforementioned inefficient tendency of carbon offsetting, many womens projects. Inefficiencies as evidenced by the backlog of projects, the low level of funding proposal through funding pipelines and the fact that after quite a number of years many projects are still in a pilot phase. Inefficiencies as evidenced by the backlog of projects, the low level of funding proposal through funding pipelines and the fact that after quite a number of years many projects are still in a pilot phase.

29 II. The nature and scope of global Climate change financing Reference point: Financial and investment flow Reference point: Financial and investment flow Goal of Climate change financing architecture: Goal of Climate change financing architecture: Manage the risk of: Adapting (to climate change induced weather events---loss and damages) Mitigate climate change (reduction of GHG emissions) and furthering the transition to low carbon economy. Approaches to climate change financing (financial resource mobilization) Approaches to climate change financing (financial resource mobilization) Public Financing, private financing and public private partnerships Public Financing, private financing and public private partnerships

30 Public Financing Public Financing The public dimension of the climate change financing architecture includes: 1) the United Nations (UNFCCC/GEF), 2) the World Bank, 3) Other multilateral financial and development financing institutions, 4) a host of bilateral donors and 5) National governments. The public dimension of the climate change financing architecture includes: 1) the United Nations (UNFCCC/GEF), 2) the World Bank, 3) Other multilateral financial and development financing institutions, 4) a host of bilateral donors and 5) National governments.

31 Public financing Mechanisms

32 Flexible Mechanisms Under Kyoto, Annex I countries, which are supposed to meet targets primarily with national measures, can have recourse to three market based mechanisms. These are emissions trading (or carbon trading), the clean development mechanism, and joint implementation. Under Kyoto, Annex I countries, which are supposed to meet targets primarily with national measures, can have recourse to three market based mechanisms. These are emissions trading (or carbon trading), the clean development mechanism, and joint implementation. Market Based Mechanisms under Kyoto Market Based Mechanisms under Kyoto Emissions trading: Emissions trading, as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare - emissions permitted them, but not "used" - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets. Thus, a new commodity was created in the form of emission reductions or removals. Since carbon dioxide is the principal greenhouse gas, people speak simply of trading in carbon. Carbon is now tracked and traded like any other commodity. This is known as the "carbon market." Emissions trading: Emissions trading, as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare - emissions permitted them, but not "used" - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets. Thus, a new commodity was created in the form of emission reductions or removals. Since carbon dioxide is the principal greenhouse gas, people speak simply of trading in carbon. Carbon is now tracked and traded like any other commodity. This is known as the "carbon market." The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): defined in Article 12 of the Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets. A CDM project activity might involve, for example, a rural electrification project using solar panels or the installation of more energy-efficient boilers. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): defined in Article 12 of the Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets. A CDM project activity might involve, for example, a rural electrification project using solar panels or the installation of more energy-efficient boilers. Joint Implementation (JI): The mechanism known as joint implementation, defined in Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows a country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emission-reduction or emission removal project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target. Joint implementation offers Parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments, while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer. Joint Implementation (JI): The mechanism known as joint implementation, defined in Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows a country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emission-reduction or emission removal project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target. Joint implementation offers Parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments, while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer. Source: UNFCCO data base Source: UNFCCO data base

33 Bilateral and multilateral financing mechanisms for mitigation and adaptation in developing countries ($ million, exchange rates of November 2008) NameTotalUSENotes Under the United Nation s Framework Convention On climate change, UNFCCC GEF -4 1,030M Time frame: , $352 million already committed as of Dec Sustainable Forest Management154M Special program under GEF-4 for land use, land-use change and forestry. Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA) 50A Pilot program on adaptation of the GEF Trust Fund. All resources have been allocated Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF Adaptation 90A Include pledges as of December $68 has been allocated to 15 projects as of November Operated by GEF. Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) Adaptation Fund ,500 AA Include pledges as of December $91.8 has been received as of November Operated by GEF. Time frame: As of October 2008, $91.3 was available (Four million CERs at 17.5 per CER).

34 Bilateral and multilateral financing mechanisms for mitigation and adaptation in developing countries ($ million, exchange rates of November 2008) Multilateral Forest Carbon Partnership, FCP (World Bank) 300M Provides grants and loans. Timeframe Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) 84A Provides grants. Timeframe Targets high-risk low and middle income countries to mainstream disaster reduction in development strategies UN Program on Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (UN-REDD) 35M Provides grants. Administered by the UNDP. Norway, trough its Climate and Forest Initiative, is the first donor with US$12 million. Sustainable Energy and climate Change Initiative (SECCI) 29A,M Provides grants and loans. The fund backs major investments in the development of biofuels, renewable

35 Multilateral contd… Climate investment Funds (CIF): Clean Technology Fund Clean Technology Fund Strategic Climate Fund Strategic Climate Fund6,3404,3332,006MA,M Timeframe: Administered by the World Bank. Provides grants and loans. The Fund was funded by the United States to be administered by the World Bank ($2 billion), and the United Kingdom and Japan have pledged the additional resources. Provides grants and loans. This includes the Forest Investment Program ($58 million) and Scaling-up Renewable Energy ($70 million) for mitigation; and the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience ($240 million) for adaptation.

36 BilateralBilateral Cool Earth Partnership (Japan) 10,000A,M Provides grants and loans. Timeframe: Up to $2 billion to improve access to clean energy, and US$8 billion for preferential interest rate loans for mitigation projects. Climate and Forest Initiative (CIF, Norway) 2,250M Provides grants. Timeframe: Pledged US$102 million to the Amazon Fund. International Window of Environmental Transformation Fund (ETF-IW, UK) 1,182A,M Provides grants and loans. Timeframe: Most of the funds will be allocated trough the WBs Climate Investment Funds. Amazon Fund (Brazil) 1,000M Norway has pledged US$102. Dona- tions to be administered by the Brazilian National Development Bank.

37 Bilateral International Climate Initiative (ICI, Germany) 764A,M Provides grants. Funding for the initiative will be generated from auctioning 10 percent of its allowances from the EU-ETS. It has earmarked up to 120 million for the next five years. International Forest carbon Initiative (IFCI, Australia) 129M Provides grants. Timeframe As of November 2008, US$50 million were allocated. UNDP-Spain MDG Achievement Fund –Environmental and Climate Change Thematic Window 90A,M Provides grants. Timeframe As of November 2008, US$50 million were allocated. Provides grants. Timeframe: Spain has pledged 528 to the Fund and US$90 million has been allocated for the Environment and Climate Change thematic window.

38 Bilateral… Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA, EC) 76A,M Provides grants. Timeframe: Targets most vulnerable countries (least developed countries and small islands) Notes. A: Adaptation; M: Mitigation. Source: UN DESA 2009 (adapted and updated from Porter et al 2008 and UNFCCC 2007).

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41 National Financial instruments (incentives) National Financial instruments (incentives) ~Direct payments ~ Tax reductions ~subsidies ~Price supports~Feed in tariffs Rebates ~Grant programmes ~Loan programmes Bonds ~Production incentives ~Government purchasing programmes~Insurance programmes ~Equity investments, including venture capital ~Equity investments, including venture capital Source: Tirpak et al 2008 Source: Tirpak et al 2008

42 II. Private Financing (Market based mechanisms ) II. Private Financing (Market based mechanisms ) The private sector network includes foundations, venture capital funds, private carbon funds and a network of exchanges. The private sector network includes foundations, venture capital funds, private carbon funds and a network of exchanges The private sector network includes foundations, venture capital funds, private carbon funds and a network of exchanges. The private sector network includes foundations, venture capital funds, private carbon funds and a network of exchanges Currently the private sector finances over 80% of climate change related activities in the three broad areas of clean energy technology, renewable energy and carbon financing. Currently the private sector finances over 80% of climate change related activities in the three broad areas of clean energy technology, renewable energy and carbon financing. Private sector actors may invest in physical assets in agriculture, forestry, mining and industries. These are long term (direct/equity) investments. Private sector actors may invest in physical assets in agriculture, forestry, mining and industries. These are long term (direct/equity) investments. Firms also invest in the carbon sector in carbon tracking, carbon trading, capture and storage technologies Firms also invest in the carbon sector in carbon tracking, carbon trading, capture and storage technologies Private sector actors (commercial banks, investment banks, utilities, industrial, and Insurance companies, investment houses, bond traders and hedgefunds) invest in short and long term financial assets include: Private sector actors (commercial banks, investment banks, utilities, industrial, and Insurance companies, investment houses, bond traders and hedgefunds) invest in short and long term financial assets include: a) assets such as bonds, loans, stocks certificate, and venture capital that finance direct investments in plants, equipment and facilities; a) assets such as bonds, loans, stocks certificate, and venture capital that finance direct investments in plants, equipment and facilities; b) a variety of climate risk (carbon and weather) products such as crop insurance and catastrophe bonds; b) a variety of climate risk (carbon and weather) products such as crop insurance and catastrophe bonds; c) assets that hedge against the future such as weather derivatives; and c) assets that hedge against the future such as weather derivatives; and d) emission trading instruments (CERs) in the carbon market d) emission trading instruments (CERs) in the carbon market

43 Private Sector Financing… There are also a growing network of international development agencies (UNDP- MDG carbon fund), non profit including civil society organizations (acting as Aggregators, consultants, trading agencies) and philanthropic organizations who are active players in the market for private sector financial and investment. There are also a growing network of international development agencies (UNDP- MDG carbon fund), non profit including civil society organizations (acting as Aggregators, consultants, trading agencies) and philanthropic organizations who are active players in the market for private sector financial and investment.

44 Private Sector Financing… Micro finance is being seen as a a vehicle for mobilizing private resources for sustainable development, including climate change. Micro finance is being seen as a a vehicle for mobilizing private resources for sustainable development, including climate change. Grameen Bank has already begun to extend loans for clean energy products, such as solar home systems, with spin-offs to micro-enterprises, while further opportunities exist in cleaner cooking products and biofuels (DESA, 2009 p.19)

45 Market Mechanism and the CDM The CDM and its associated Kyoto mechanisms facilitate Annex B parties to meet the commitments of the Protocol via domestic emission reductions, sink enhancements, and the purchase of allowances and credits, for The CDM and its associated Kyoto mechanisms facilitate Annex B parties to meet the commitments of the Protocol via domestic emission reductions, sink enhancements, and the purchase of allowances and credits, for CDM enables a project to generate CERs in order to mitigate climate change in Non Annex I parties; it is the second largest carbon trading market. CDM enables a project to generate CERs in order to mitigate climate change in Non Annex I parties; it is the second largest carbon trading market. It has managed to leverage and catalyze a number of projects and process in developing countries. These include the engagement of the MDG, in terms of the MDG Carbon Facility, micro finance as well as regional development banks into carbon trading activities. It has managed to leverage and catalyze a number of projects and process in developing countries. These include the engagement of the MDG, in terms of the MDG Carbon Facility, micro finance as well as regional development banks into carbon trading activities. Under the CDM, buyers from developed countries can acquire Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) for each tonne of greenhouse gas that is prevented from entering the atmosphere as a result of a CDM project in a developing country. Under the CDM, buyers from developed countries can acquire Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) for each tonne of greenhouse gas that is prevented from entering the atmosphere as a result of a CDM project in a developing country. CDM can be used for any project-based activity which results in a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to the baseline activity. CDM can be used for any project-based activity which results in a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to the baseline activity. A baseline is the level of greenhouse gases that was emitted (or assumed to be emitted) before the start of the project, and serves as the basis for determining project emissions reductions. A baseline is the level of greenhouse gases that was emitted (or assumed to be emitted) before the start of the project, and serves as the basis for determining project emissions reductions. As of end-2007, proceeds from the sale of emission credits from over 4, 000 CDM projects in the pipeline amounted to about $7.4 billion, a 50% increase in value over 2006, and triple in value from (This is relatively small compared to the overall carbon market, which has risen sharply over the past few years, reaching $60 billion in 2007 or six times its value in 2005.) As of end-2007, proceeds from the sale of emission credits from over 4, 000 CDM projects in the pipeline amounted to about $7.4 billion, a 50% increase in value over 2006, and triple in value from (This is relatively small compared to the overall carbon market, which has risen sharply over the past few years, reaching $60 billion in 2007 or six times its value in 2005.)

46 The Carbon Market

47 CDM sectoral Distribution

48 CDM geographic Distribution

49 Challenges with CDM CDM suffers from: the lack of sustainable projects or those with the most co-benefits (like poverty reduction, UNDP) the lack of sustainable projects or those with the most co-benefits (like poverty reduction, UNDP) CDM projects dont meet the needs of less developed countries, nor of people who are at the end of the poverty chain – the majority of whom are women. CDM projects dont meet the needs of less developed countries, nor of people who are at the end of the poverty chain – the majority of whom are women. CDM projects involve high transaction cost and high risk for small scale projects, which are important for poverty reduction and womens participation. CDM projects involve high transaction cost and high risk for small scale projects, which are important for poverty reduction and womens participation. There is insufficient preparatory finance for project development, heavy initial up front costs and too long a time horizon for securing long term financing and turn around of project. Upfront financing Is needed to cover: the completion of feasibility studies, issuance of permits, securing of long-term finance, and actual construction and commissioning, These factors have led to CDM financing become a constraint on the flow of projects in the carbon market. There is insufficient preparatory finance for project development, heavy initial up front costs and too long a time horizon for securing long term financing and turn around of project. Upfront financing Is needed to cover: the completion of feasibility studies, issuance of permits, securing of long-term finance, and actual construction and commissioning, These factors have led to CDM financing become a constraint on the flow of projects in the carbon market. Ultimately, the high transaction costs associate with CDMs process of elaborating a project development design, meeting the expenses of a Designate Operating Entities and other registration requirements for a CDM project is neither feasible nor cost effective for most small scale women operated projects. In effect, the current CDMs cumbersome and time consuming process is not gender or development friendly and needs to be radically reform or eliminated. Ultimately, the high transaction costs associate with CDMs process of elaborating a project development design, meeting the expenses of a Designate Operating Entities and other registration requirements for a CDM project is neither feasible nor cost effective for most small scale women operated projects. In effect, the current CDMs cumbersome and time consuming process is not gender or development friendly and needs to be radically reform or eliminated. This defeats one of the main purposes of the CDM, to stimulate investment in less carbon- intensive growth. This defeats one of the main purposes of the CDM, to stimulate investment in less carbon- intensive growth. Only special CDM projects programmes in LDCs such as community Only special CDM projects programmes in LDCs such as community development climate fund, bio Bio Carbon Fund (BioCF) and Africa Assist may provide a chance for participation in the international CDM market. development climate fund, bio Bio Carbon Fund (BioCF) and Africa Assist may provide a chance for participation in the international CDM market.

50 Reform of CDM There is a concerted push for reform of CDM in at least the following directions: Streamlining of applications Streamlining of applications Focus on smaller projects Focus on smaller projects Replace its project focus with a programmatic and/or policy focus, Replace its project focus with a programmatic and/or policy focus, Shorter funding cycles Shorter funding cycles Lower transaction costs Lower transaction costs It is hope that through such corrective measures the CDM can generate a greater impact in developing countries. It is hope that through such corrective measures the CDM can generate a greater impact in developing countries. CDM reform could be good for gender equality and poverty reduction. Especially if it focus on household energy, food processing, environmental services and natural resource management. CDM reform could be good for gender equality and poverty reduction. Especially if it focus on household energy, food processing, environmental services and natural resource management. Increase the voices of women and community Increase the voices of women and community Allow for more bundling/aggegators which are gender inclusive. Allow for more bundling/aggegators which are gender inclusive. Eg: Grameen Shaki. Eg: Grameen Shaki.

51 Innovative Financing and Gender Proposals include for up-scaling funds and reform of the post 2012 climate change architecture are numerous. A sampling of some of the ones that would seem to be amenable to or important to consider from a gender equality perspective include: International financial transactions such as CTT (at a rate of 0.5% taxes on carbon transaction this could yield $50 billion); International financial transactions such as CTT (at a rate of 0.5% taxes on carbon transaction this could yield $50 billion); International levies on emissions from international maritime transport and aviation/air travel. International levies on emissions from international maritime transport and aviation/air travel. International/national auctioning of assigned amounts unitslevy on the proceeds from international emissions trading. International/national auctioning of assigned amounts unitslevy on the proceeds from international emissions trading. Strategic allocations of proceeds using existing mechanisms and enhance absorptive capacity at the domestic levelthis is for of adaptation mainstreaming; governance Strategic allocations of proceeds using existing mechanisms and enhance absorptive capacity at the domestic levelthis is for of adaptation mainstreaming; governance North should dedicate 1% of national stimulus package (totaling $1.3 billion in two years) to developing countries to deal with after effects of global financial crisis and climate change. North should dedicate 1% of national stimulus package (totaling $1.3 billion in two years) to developing countries to deal with after effects of global financial crisis and climate change.

52 Innovative Financing & Gender Innovative financial instruments beyond carbon tax and auctioning of AAUs such as tax on international air traffic and maritime levy as well as various types and kinds of climate insurance are worth discussing. But it is important that thorough social and gender assessments of the likely impacts and the possible mechanisms for passing through the fund in order to facilitate targeted gender equality interventions are well thought out. Innovative financial instruments beyond carbon tax and auctioning of AAUs such as tax on international air traffic and maritime levy as well as various types and kinds of climate insurance are worth discussing. But it is important that thorough social and gender assessments of the likely impacts and the possible mechanisms for passing through the fund in order to facilitate targeted gender equality interventions are well thought out. An adaptation levy on international emissions trading might be one way of ensuring a predictable flow of financing for specialized women funds. An adaptation levy on international emissions trading might be one way of ensuring a predictable flow of financing for specialized women funds. In the case of insurance, risk management models, on their own, are not inherently gender neutral and will be implemented in a financial system riddle with gender biases, gender distortions and asymmetries that might create even more disadvantages for women, as a group, relative to men. There is therefore need for gender analysis of such approaches with appropriate safeguards built into climate insurance schemes. In the case of insurance, risk management models, on their own, are not inherently gender neutral and will be implemented in a financial system riddle with gender biases, gender distortions and asymmetries that might create even more disadvantages for women, as a group, relative to men. There is therefore need for gender analysis of such approaches with appropriate safeguards built into climate insurance schemes.

53 A tentative framework for assessing the gender sensitivity of current financing mechanism and new reform oriented proposals Less than burden some criteria for accessing all funds. Less than burden some criteria for accessing all funds. Positive incentive (no economic or other forms of policy conditionalities). Positive incentive (no economic or other forms of policy conditionalities). Technology that is gender, social and development friendly and that protects the web of life and promotes ecological security (no disruption of geochemical science, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycles); adequate attention to traditional knowledge and seek to improve and enhance their effectiveness. (For example, rainwater harvesting, recharging of ground well and facilitating sustainable agriculture and development). Technology that is gender, social and development friendly and that protects the web of life and promotes ecological security (no disruption of geochemical science, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycles); adequate attention to traditional knowledge and seek to improve and enhance their effectiveness. (For example, rainwater harvesting, recharging of ground well and facilitating sustainable agriculture and development). Balance between Adaptation and Mitigation in prioritizing funding. (In the case of developing countries, especially the least developing countries and SIDs, there may have to be a tilting in favour of adaptation.) Balance between Adaptation and Mitigation in prioritizing funding. (In the case of developing countries, especially the least developing countries and SIDs, there may have to be a tilting in favour of adaptation.) Mix of market based and non-market based financing mechanism to ensure equity of outcomes for the poor, the majority of whom are women Mix of market based and non-market based financing mechanism to ensure equity of outcomes for the poor, the majority of whom are women Promote and ensure the resiliency of the household economy Promote and ensure the resiliency of the household economy

54 Towards a gender sensitive and gender equitable climate change financing system Recommendations First, reform of the current set of mechanisms, such as CDM, must start with a gender sensitive perspective that seeks to re-oriented these mechanisms. In the first case, they should operate on a less than burdensome criteria This means eliminating the often onerous prerequisites, costly financial and human resource applications, registration, monitoring and evaluation processes. Secondly, mechanisms, such as REDD, must be designed to handle small to medium scale activities with moderate economies of scale. This include outreach to micro, small and medium sized firms owned and operated by women that are working in the area of adaptation and mitigation and technology development. It should also seek to ensure womens and indigenous peoples access, control and ownership of land and forests. Third, financing mechanism must promote and ensure household and community infrastructure that ease mens and womens time burden and reduce or eliminate their vulnerability to climate events. This includes the financing of technologies and renewable energies for the household sectors. Fourth, there must be a focus on food self sufficiency and rural infrastructural development. This applies to both adaptation and mitigation financing.

55 Towards a gender sensitive and gender equitable climate change financing system Fifth, many of the recommendation above can be achieved by up scaling funding and creating special windows in the existing funds. In the case of CDM, there is need to widen its scope of operation to include more diverse project activities and sizes. Sixth, new funds can be designed under carefully devised gender sensitive guidelines with expedited process, and to include special windows for MSMEs pooled projects that involves womens collaborative activities. A special set of Trust funds geared to projects that seek to bring to light and mitigate events and factors that contributes to the vulnerability of women and girls to climate events should be established. This include developing and supporting gender sensitive vulnerability assessment, gender sensitive climate risk diagnostics. Such funds should also have sub components that subsidies insurance premiums for crop and catastrophic damages to homes and businesses owned by poor women and men. Trust funds should also promote the provisioning of ICTs and training programs that teaches women how to rehabilitation and repair damaged household and community infrastructure post climate change weather induced events. Seventh, gender sensitization of all NAPAs and National Communications strategies. Eighth, Research on the gender differentiate impacts of different types of national and global climate change financing instruments such as cap and trade, carbon tax, and subsidies.

56 Photo credits X-ray fireworks (debris of an exploded star) - known as supernova remnant "E0102" for NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Great Black Spot (bruise in Jupiters cloud) July NASA, ESA, H. Hammel (SSI), Jupiter Impact Team Firewood or forest: A girl from the Benet community. Credit: Wambi Michael/IPS

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