Presentation on theme: "The Farmers Know, So Why Dont We? Prolegomenas to Working and Living in Global Environments."— Presentation transcript:
The Farmers Know, So Why Dont We? Prolegomenas to Working and Living in Global Environments
So what does the soy bean farmer & spouse in southeastern Iowa have to know in the morning? Weather developments being fed from Japan London market prices for soy oil and soy meal Why Argentine exports have slumped, Brazilian supplies have declined, what accounts for stronger demand from China The geo-portrait of fish meal versus soy meal as protein animal feeds Reefer loading rates to New Orleans Panama Canal Authority dry bulk rates for September Shipping rates for New Orleans to Shanghai, Chinese tariffs and taxes
The farmer and spouse do not live in Iowa......they live everywhere!
A different slice of the global This is a different kind of presentation and interaction than most of those you have joined at this conference. There is no program to show, strut, analyze. There is, instead, a lot of context, a modicum of data, and opening of higher education windows. Cliff Adelman, Institute for Higher Education Policy October 5, 2013
What Were Going to Do Today Review some inescapable global and national demographics and their coming effects on higher education Lay out types and locations of migration Squirm over the language environment Highlight global environmental factors: water, agriculture, health in cross-national joint degree programs Underscore parallel developments enabling global mobility through degree qualifications
And something else were going to do: Your first 1 minute quiz
Dont be embarrassed! For how many of the following could you go to a world map, and instantly point to Moldova, Manaus, Mogadishu, and the Maghreb. Identify the capital, colonial language, native language, and principal export of Senegal Identify the country in which 9/11 is as important a marker as it is in the USand tell us why Provide the exchange rates of Yuan to Dollar and Ruble to Euro, and indicate one reason why each of these are important Articulate the origins of the Sunni/Shia split, and identify at least two countries in which each dominates Name 4 areas in the U.S. in which some version of Portuguese registers as one of the principal second languages of those areas. Name 5 countries in which bilingualism or multilingualism is official.
As long as were at it---and as a bridge---we can do the 1 minute demography quiz Which of the following will be the most populous country in 2050? Argentina, Vietnam, Germany, Russia, Japan Given 2 nd language populations in the state of Maine, what is the most widely spoken language other than English and Canadian French? How about in Vermont? To what demographic phenomenon do the answers to these questions point? Up to 2010, which of the following countries could NOT show positive net migration: Spain, Turkey, Sweden, Canada, Greece
Where demography plays directly into higher education policy Severe current and coming declines in the youth age population: Japan, Korea, Russia, Poland, Czech Republic Modest declines or flat growth: Germany, Finland, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Greece, China Slight growth: UK, Denmark, Sweden, Spain Steady growth to at least 2025: US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Chile Over-the-top growth: India, Turkey ALL OF THIS IS BAKED INTO CURRENT STATUS--- ALL EXCEPT THE FORCES OF MIGRATION, SO
Migration stock observations Non-voluntary migration (flight, displacement, refuge), e.g. Syria, Sudan, Somalia, puts significant pressures on receiving countries. Language affinity, colonial relationships, and geographic adjacency define the bulk of voluntary migration. Economic-driven flows are, at the bottom line, voluntary, too. One also finds reciprocities and replacements in the migration universe, e.g. Poland Across all cases---the U.S. included---the median age of the migrant stock is considerably younger than the native stock.
Migration and Net Migration Feed, including Student Stock TOFROM: FranceMaghreb; Outre-mer IrelandPoland; UK NetherlandsTurkey; Surinam NorwayPoland; Sweden PolandUkraine; Belarus PortugalAngola; Brazil SpainRomania; Morocco SwedenFinland; Iraq
And how do we judge what is coming at us from elsewhere in higher ed? Poverty Rate of the under-18s Limited English, ages 5-17 College Enrollment Rate, 18-24 Native-born 19.5 3.7 42.8 Mexico 42.9 38.5 11.1 South and East Asia 17.2 28.4 61.7 Caribbean 29.4 33.8 39.2 Central America 27.0 33.2 13.6 South America 18.8 20.1 38.5 Middle East 42.4 34.8 55.7 Other (European, Canada, Africa, etc) 19.5 17.8 53.3
How are higher education folks trying to connect these moving populations? Lets start with Tuning: getting folks to sing in the same key, though not necessarily with the same song
Tuning as a Cross-Border, Cross- Continent Phenomenon Tuning Central in Europe from 2000-- EU Thematic Network Tuning from 2005--- Project ALFA, Latin American Tuning since 2005--- Tuning USA from 2009--- Australian and Chinese Tuning experiments, 2010-2013 The first 3 were truly cross-border & multi-lingual All of them face critical mass challenges Tuned fields that run into international accrediting challenges: Engineering, Nursing, Business
So what is Tuning, and why has it taken root on at least 3 continents? A faculty-based process to establish common reference points for the presentation of an academic field, and a range of student learning outcomes that flow from those reference points o The initial and principal motivation for Tuning in Europe was to enhance student mobility in a common labor market o The motivations for Tuning in Latin America and the U.S. were different, and teach us that the reasons one undertakes Tuning determines what one gets. o In all the cases, though, Tuning involves consultation with employers, recent graduates in the field, current students, and faculty in other fields.
Example: what do we see of current Business programs on 3 continents? Core reference point of the firm as a value- chain:. Procurement (material, human); Product manufacturing or provision of services; marketing (all types, all media); finance, accounting, logistics and delivery; customer service Overlying grid of specialty economic area programs: health care, hospitality, retail, maritime.
What would Tuning projects on all 3 continents like to see as mid-level discipline-specific competency statements? The graduating student will demonstrate competence in: Designing logistics systems Selecting and applying IT methods for cost analysis Formulating information systems for quality control Identifying and evaluating business risks Developing criteria for hiring specialists in accounting and marketing
Move up one level to generic competencies (Tuning does) a graduating student must master in order to execute those tasks Identifies, categorizes, and evaluates multiple information resources necessary to engage in any project Disaggregates and reformulates data necessary for making decisions on a course of action Prioritizes and explicates approaches to non- standard problems Negotiates and collaborates with others, and in whatever languages are necessary, in proposing policies to improve each link in the value chain
Wait a minute! Dont those proficiencies sound like Degree Qualifications Profile entries? Thats certainly the point, and why Tuning and DQP are increasingly intertwined in the U.S.
Put together the discipline-specific and the generic and you have analogous SLOs across borders addressing: Analysis of environments both within and outside firms; and of resources (financial, physical, and human) within firms. Strategic decision-making, that is, choice: conditioned by articulation of financial risk. Communication skills and behaviors in harmony with changing cultural environments. The students who emerge with these proficiencies can be assigned to Sydney, Copenhagen, Porto Alegre.....Wait a minute! Porto Alegre? That means language, and where does that come from in business?
Language, Part I: Beyond Colonial History, How English became the default 2 nd language Finance fulcrum in London, late 19 th -early 20 th centuries Limited and elite circle of users, continuing Avionics and air traffic control, from 1930s Specialized users, continuing culture of dependency Occupation: post WW II, Korea, Vietnam, middle East Mass impact across range of social and economic classes Computer hard-drive code, 1960s and 1970s Specialized users, initial culture of dependency Mass marketing of music and entertainment, 1950---- Mass impact across range of social and economic classes Internet codes, then content: 1990s--- From specialized users to global users
Language, Part II One could add, e.g. scientific and academic journals, but these are outgrowths of an expanding default, and simply condition a dominant class of communicators. One certainly has to acknowledge that, structurally, English is easier to learn: analytic, low degree of inflection, gender-neutral, visual commonalities with other major Western user languages. That said, its not the only language out there.
Language, Part III: and here at home: 21 percent of U.S. adults speak a language other than English at home (62% Spanish) Other languages with more than 900k non-English users (in order): Chinese, Tagalog, Vietnamese, French, Korean, German, Arabic, Russian Percentage increase of non-English users, 1980-2010 (in order): Vietnamese, Chinese, Russian, Korean, Farsi, Spanish, Tagalog, Armenian For 12 percent of beginning postsecondary students, English is not the primary language
And which proficiency in the Degree Qualifications Profile received the most negative response from higher education? Under Communication Fluency, bachelors level: In a language other than English, and either orally or in writing, [the student] conducts an inquiry with a non- English-language source concerning information, conditions, technologies and/or practices in his/her major field. Porto Alegre? Whether in business, public health, agricultural organizations, you are not going to survive! I guess U.S. higher ed wants little to do with living in this world. But others do....
What else do we see out there through which higher education tries to cross borders and link todays students to tomorrows world inhabitants?
Joint Cross-Border Degrees: a Promising Recognition of Global Labor Markets and Challenges, Provided that: Participating countries are not adjacent There is no lingua franca, and bilingual development is part of the program The degree subject is defensible within international taxonomies Mobility is built into the program, requiring at least one term in a 2 nd country.
Most of these are Masters level, and came out of ERASMUS Partly fits with Bologna default 3+2 degree cycle structure Classic example was Coastal Ecology: Denmark, France, Portugal At least one-term residence in all 3 countries required. English, French, Portuguese: know one, develop at least one other to proficiency
Other examples, problems and openings for non-European participation Migration and Intercultural Relations: Sudan, Uganda, Germany, Norway, Czech, Slovenia; English is LOI; primary residence is Germany Public Health: France, Spain, Poland, UK, Denmark; choice of 1 st yr. in English, French, or Spanish; 2 nd yr. in a different language. Rural Development: Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, Slovakia, Italy. Partnership associations in Africa, and through UN and OECD. English is LOI but students also expected to reach level A2 in French.
Its difficult, but far more effective than: Opening satellite campuses in other countries Poverty-tourism for domestic students Quasi-interactive MOOCs for casts of thousands from two dozen countries, held in your own room Three week language camps in Besan on Weekly international dinners with the international students on campus
Third quiz, except this time its a conversational challenge YOU get 5 minutes to scribble notes and consult with those in either side of you. Then, well go around and collect joint degree designs: problem, disciplinary areas involved, proposed countries, language requirements, residency requirements, costs, funding sources Were going to put them up on the board, vote for the best, and you tell us why.