History Ottoman Empire ruled lands until the 1800s –Allowed practice of religion –Nation-states –Ethnic disputes brought decline
World War I Ottoman Empire + Central Powers Britain & France secret deal? Balfour Declaration? The Balfour and Sykes-Picot helped to create long lasting resentment toward Western motives.
Following World War I Borders drawn up –Pg. 471 How were the lines changed? Mandates –Which countries were mandates? Palestine
Israel After Holocaust looking Jews looking for home Problem Britain withdraws U.N. solution to problem Current situation? Pg. 474
Israel Human Geography Jewish Split –Ashkenazi –Sephardic Immigration Arabs = ? 14
Israel Movement 1948 Conflict –Led to Palestinians neighbors –Led Jews Settle in Israel 1967 Conflict –Israel West Bank & Gaza Strip –Palestinians Moved again Many moved into refugee camps PLO in camps Cycle of Violence?? 15
Israel Human-Environment Interaction Negev Desert cover ½ of the country National Water Carrier –Drip Irrigation –Challenges Mining 16
Jordan West Bank West Bank Since King Hussein began new reforms, the economy has improved –Goal: to unite an Islamic heritage with modern political freedoms
Lebanon Beirut = “Paris of Middle East” Civil War –Palestinians complicate –Hezbollah (Shiite group) –Anarchy!! 1991 – Equitable political system established Regional stability still threatened
Syria Prosperous land & trade –Grow cotton, wheat, fruit & veggies –Out of date methods Rainfall is unreliable Little irrigation –= Movement to cities Turkey damming –Less water for farm & electricity Harbors terrorists?
Iraq Mesopotamia – “land between rivers” –Leads to great agriculture Oil discovered in 1920s War with Iran –Halabja Video – 8 minutesHalabja Video Persian Gulf War –Embargo –Kurds / Shiites War on Terror