2 Classifying Governments There are 3 criteria:Who can participateGeographic distribution of powerRelationship between executive and legislative branches
3 Who Can Participate Maybe the most important criteria. Based on number of people that can take part.Two basic forms to consider: Democracy and Dictatorship.
4 Democracy Supreme political authority rests with the people. Government is conducted with the consent of the people.Can be direct or indirect in form.
5 Direct Democracy- Also called a pure democracy, exists when the will of the people is made into law directly through the people, usually in mass meetings.It does not exist at the national level anywhere in the world today. Why not?
6 Indirect Democracy- Also called representative democracy Indirect Democracy- Also called representative democracy. Here a small group of people are chosen as representatives.These Rep. carry out the will of the people and conduct day-to-day govt.
7 They are held accountable through elections. In a democracy, the people are sovereign; that is, they hold the power. Government only by consent of the people.
8 DictatorshipDictatorships exist where rulers are not held responsible to the will of the people.Probably the oldest and most common form of govt in history.Can be classified as autocracies or oligarchies.
9 Autocracy- a single person holds unlimited power. Oligarchy- The power to rule Is held by a small, usually self appointed, elite.All dictatorships are authoritarian, meaning those in power hold absolute and unchallengeable power over those they rule.
10 Modern dictatorships tend to be totalitarian as well. Totalitarian- Holding complete power over every aspect of human affairs.Examples of dictatorships include Facist Italy, Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union.
11 In most dictatorships today, several groups hold power In most dictatorships today, several groups hold power. These include, army, religious leaders, wealthy industrialists.Many times people are able to vote, but ballots typically contain only one candidate.Most dictatorships today are military in nature; power is gained and held by force.
12 Geographic Distribution of Power In every system of government the power to govern is located in one or more places, geographically.UnitaryFederalConfederate
13 Unitary Government Centralized government All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency.Most governments in the world are unitary in form.Great Britain is an example
14 Federal GovernmentThe powers of government are divided between a central gov’t and several local gov’ts.Division of powers on a geographic basis.Examples; United States, Australia, Canada, Mexico, Switzerland
15 Confederate Government A confederation is an alliance of independent states.The confederate gov’t has the power to handle only those matters that the member states have assigned to it.Rare but the EU is closest approach today,Articles of ConfederationConfederate States of America
16 Relationship between Legislative and Executive Branches PresidentialSeperation of powers between the executive and the legislative branchesTwo branches are independent of one another and coequalEx. United states, Western HemisphereParliamentaryThe executive is made up of the prime minister or premiew, and that official’s cabinet.The PM and cabinet are members of the legislative branch, the parliamentExec, is chosen by, a part of, and is subject to the legislature.
17 5 Foundations of Democracy Worth of the IndividualEquality of all personsMajority Rule, Minority RightsNecessity of CompromiseIndividual Freedom
18 Democracy and the Free Enterprise System CapitalismLaw of supply and demandGov’t + Free enterprise = Mixed economy
19 “HUMANS WOULD CEASE (BECOME EXTINCT) TO EXIST WITHOUT GOVERNMENT.” What does this statement mean?Do you agree with the author? Why or why not?What do we call a society where no organized government exists? Can this work?
20 WHAT TYPE OF GOVERNMENT IS BEING DISCUSSED IN EACH DOCUMENT? DOCUMENT 1: The pharaoh was an absolute ruler. He commanded the army and controlled irrigation and grain supplies. People in this society considered the pharaoh to be a god.DICTATORSHIP/MONARCHY/AUTOCRACY
21 NAME THAT GOVERNMENT:DOCUMENT 2: This civilization was founded in 750 B.C. This early city-state contained two main social classes: the patricians and the plebeians. In early times, these people overthrew their king and created a type of government in which leaders were elected. Power was shared between the Senate and two consuls elected by the Senate.INDIRECT DEMOCRACY/REPUBLIC
22 NAME THAT GOVERNMENT:DOCUMENT 3: The Nazi Party took over every aspect of this country’s social, economic & political life. In Hitler’s “Third Reich” the following changes took place: human rights violations, control of education, persecution of Jews & a secret police was established. Hitler quickly secured his power by burning down a legislative building. He then blamed the Communists for the fire and used the incident to obtain emergency powers, becoming an absolute ruler.DICTATORSHIP/AUTOCRACY