2 Focus Your Thoughts . . . Journal What type of government does the United States have?Who can participate?Who should be allowed to participate? Who shouldn’t?Why?Focus Your Thoughts . . .
3 Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government Classifying GovernmentsWe classify government in three ways:By examining who can participateBy looking at the geographic distribution of governmental power within the stateBy discerning the relationship between the legislative branch and the executive branches of the government.Which do you think is the most important?Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government
4 Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government Who Can Participate in a Democracy?Supreme political authority rests with the peopleGovernment is conducted by the consent of the governedTwo types:Direct – When the will of the people is translated into public policy directly by the people themselves in meetingsThis does not exist on a national level anywhere today2. Indirect/Representative – A small group of persons chosen by the people to act as their representatives express the popular will.Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government
5 Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government Who Can Participate in a Dictatorship?Exists where those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the peopleThe government is not held accountable for its policies or the manner in which they are carried outTwo types:Autocracy – A government in which a single person holds unlimited political powerOligarchy – A government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite.All dictatorships are authoritarian; most are also totalitarian.Authoritarian – Those in power hold absolute and unchallengable authority over the peopleTotalitarian – Those in power exercise complete control over nearly every aspect of human affairsChapter 1.2 – Forms of Government
6 Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government The Geographic Distribution of PowerFederal government – The powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments; an authority superior to both the central and local governments makes this division of powers on a geographic basis and both levels of government act directly on the people through their own sets of laws.Unitary government – All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency; the central government creates local units of government for its own convenience and these local governments have only those powers which the central government chooses to give them. (Ex. Great Britain)Confederate government – A confederation is an alliance of states; the confederate government has the power to handle only those matters which the member states have assigned to it.(Ex. The EU – European Union is the closest; AOC)Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government
7 Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government What’s the EU?The EU, or European Union, was established in by 11 countries in EuropeIt established free trade among its now twenty- five member-nations, launched a common currency, and seeks to coordinate its members’ foreign and defense policiesChapter 1.2 – Forms of Government
8 Chapter 1.2 – Forms of Government Relationship Between the Legislative and Executive BranchesTwo types:PresidentialFeatures a separation of powers between the executive and legislative branchesThe two branches are independent and equalEach branch is regularly given several powers with which it can block actions of the other branchParliamentaryThe executive branch is made up of the prime minister or premier, and that official’s cabinetThe prime minister and the cabinet are members of the legislative branch – called parliament, and the prime minister serves as the leader of the majority partyWith parliament’s approval, the prime minister selects the cabinet from among the members of parliament, and the prime minister and his cabinet stay in power on so long as their policies reflect the beliefs of the majority in parliament (vote of no confidence)One definite plus – parliamentary government avoids one of the major problems of the presidential form: prolonged conflict and sometimes deadlock between the executive and legislative branchesChapter 1.2 – Forms of Government