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1. Papillion-LaVista Public School District, Omaha, NE Especially Kristy Feden! Sarpy County Head Start, NE School Psychology Graduate Students Many,

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Presentation on theme: "1. Papillion-LaVista Public School District, Omaha, NE Especially Kristy Feden! Sarpy County Head Start, NE School Psychology Graduate Students Many,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Papillion-LaVista Public School District, Omaha, NE Especially Kristy Feden! Sarpy County Head Start, NE School Psychology Graduate Students Many, many children and their families University Committee on Research Artwork by Julie K. Hart 2

3 An observation of a childs skills in the context of play Cognitive (thinking and problem-solving) Social Behavioral A system that results in a description of a childs competencies and areas of need A method of monitoring a childs progress in curriculum and intervention 3

4 Individual assessments to determine performance levels in developmental domains Screening classes or groups to determine group performance Progress monitoring of individuals, groups, and/or classrooms Program evaluation to determine program effectiveness 4

5 An intervention process in which the areas of need that are identified in play assessment are addressed in the context of play 5

6 Teachers easily understand the intervention Children are in their natural environment Parents can learn how to conduct interventions 6

7 Observational Approach how to 7

8 Determine setting Laboratory Classroom Home Select time of day (free play is ideal in classrooms) Make sure that the toys can elicit a wide range of skills 8

9 Observe at least 30 minutes to determine level of exploratory/pretend play Document the amount of time for play behaviors (explained later) For supplementary subdomains, observe until child reaches age appropriate levels of play or until you determine that the results are accurate Validate from the teacher 9

10 Do not guide the childs play Do not let others guide the childs play For categories that were not observed, you can set up an opportunity – may need to ask teacher If category never observed and no opportunities are available, ask teacher for input 10

11 Also note any social and/or behavioral strengths and possible areas of need Initiation of play Receptivity of play when others initiate Variety of playmates Adult vs. child play 11

12 Can also note on the following Language Motor Interests 12

13 Forms and coding guidelines How to analyze the observations 13

14 Observation and Coding Summary and Progress PIECES Developmental Progression of Play 14

15 Core Play Skills – measures cognitive development Exploratory Play Simple Pretend Play Complex Pretend Play Social Skills Behavior Language can be noted Supplemental Play Skills – Problem Solving Skills and Planning - measures cognitive development Discrimination/ Classification Skills Quantification Skills Drawing Skills Sequencing Abilities 15

16 Number Child(ren)/Adults 16

17 Initiator – child initiates play with another child or adult Follower – child follows play of another child or adult Cooperative – child has cooperative play interchanges with another child or adult 17

18 Language heard during play – document This can be a conversation with an adult or another child or the target child could be talking to him/herself 18

19 Strategic Behavior and Problem Solving Skills Discrimination/Classification Skills Quantification Skills Drawing Skills Sequencing Abilities 19

20 Highest level of play coded for each subdomain (i.e., core and supplemental) Percent of time in pretend vs. exploratory play Number of steps in pretend play (when applicable) Description of the variety of play acts, toys used, and level of facilitation Social dimensions of play Behaviors that may facilitate or interfere with play 20

21 Competencies Student observed an age appropriate skill in the play subdomain Reported skills Teacher reported an age appropriate skill in the play subdomain but the skill was not observed Emerging skills Skill was observed rarely or only with facilitation Areas of need Skill was not observed or reported 21

22 Using the assessment data 22

23 Screening of all children using the PIECES observation and coding system Can be conducted 3-4 times per year Purpose: To determine group progress and program effectiveness To determine which children need additional interventions Must have a criteria for moving to Level 2 23

24 Small group or individual interventions Interventions are 1-2 times per week Progress is monitored 1-2 times per week Evaluate progress every 4-6 weeks Establish a criteria for moving from Level 2 to Level 3 and from Level 2 to Level 1 24

25 Level 3 – Individual or small group interventions Progress is monitored 2-3 times per week Interventions are 3-5 times per week Evaluate progress every 4-6 weeks 25

26 Determine from assessment results Intensity depends on need Small group or individual interventions can be used Frequent progress monitoring is required because young children change very quickly Peer comparisons are helpful in determining if improvement is due to development or the intervention 26

27 Parents* Teachers Peers Siblings Older children in a school – if applicable *Hart found that parents are knowledgeable about play and believe it is important to development but their childs play level did not reflect the belief 27

28 Individual and group intervention strategies Teach new skills Model Add ons Increase emerging skills Verbal prompts Play partners Use verbal praise and encouragement throughout intervention 28

29 Cherney, I. C., Kelly-Vance, L., Gill, K., Ruane, A., & Ryalls, B. O. (2003). The effects of stereotyped toys and gender on play assessment in month old children. Educational Psychology, 22, Kelly-Vance, L., Needelman, H., Troia, K., & Ryalls, B. O. (1999). Early childhood assessment: A comparison of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and a Play- Based Technique. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 27, Kelly-Vance, L., & Ryalls, B. O. (2008). Best practices in play assessment and intervention. In J. Grimes & A. Thomas, (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V, vol. 2, Kelly-Vance, L., & Ryalls, B. O. (2005). A systematic, reliable approach to play assessment in preschoolers. School Psychology International, 26, Kelly-Vance, L., Ryalls, B. O., & Glover, K. G. (2002). The use of play assessment to evaluate the cognitive skills of two- and three-year old children. School Psychology International, 23, Mallory, J., Kelly-Vance, L, & Ryalls, B. O. (2010). Incorporating divergent thinking into play interventions for preschool children with developmental risk factors. The International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 20,

30 Lisa Kelly-Vance Brigette Ryalls Jessica Dempsey 30


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