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Why European Exploration?

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Presentation on theme: "Why European Exploration?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Why European Exploration?
Consolidation of nations led to desire to push outward New technological developments God, Gold, Glory Cannons are invented, make it easier to attack and conquer Cannons were mounted on ships Caravel ship – more cargo, easier to maneuver. Can also put cannons on it. Magnetic compass – determine direction Astrolabe – used to determine location/latitude Can also relate it to curiosity about the universe that people had in Renaissance society.

2 Who started it? Portugal Henry the Navigator 1394-1460
Bartholomew Diaz Magellan Portugal is in a good geographic position to explore Africa. Portuguese objectives to Christianize, find gold, and an overseas route to India. The Spanish will pick up these goals too. Henry the Navigator sent annual expeditions to Africa. Portuguese gradually established trading posts along the coast and penetrated inland. This is the “golden age” of Portugal and virtually the only time we will hear about them in the course (which doesn’t mean they are not important…simply this is the height of Portuguese power). 1487 Bartholomew Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope Set up trading posts in India Magellan circumnavigates the world – sailing for Spain (makes Portugal mad)

3 Employed by Ferdinand and Isabella
Has become a controversial figure 4 voyages Brought on the Golden Century of Spain (1500s)

4 Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Official European Colony
Explorers Conquistadores The Spanish brought in lots of wealth from the Americas, mostly in precious metals This brought on their Golden Age and many say their downfall: Overpopulation created an economic crisis. In addition Spain had expelled some of its best farmers and merchants, so they were not equipped to deal with the crisis. The wealth from the New World caused inflation. Spain was headed for a crash (more on that later). Official European Colony Missionaries Permanent Settlers

5 The “Columbian Exchange”
Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE Syphilis Trinkets Liquor GUNS Migration of people led to an exchange of flora and fauna, plants and disease. SMALLPOX kills millions of Native Americans: for example smallpox killed 24 out of 15 million. Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox Flu Typhus Measles Malaria Diptheria Whooping Cough

6 Treasures from the Americas

7 European Empires in the Americas

8 The Colonial Class System
Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Indians Black Slaves

9 Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World
Encomienda or forced labor. Viceroy. New Spain and Peru. Papal agreement.

10 The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral
Our Lady of Guadalupe Guadalajara Cathedral Spanish Mission

11 The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

12 New Colonial Rivals

13 Impact of European Expansion
Native populations ravaged by disease. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [“Price Revolution”] New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. Deepened colonial rivalries. 5. Slave trade

14 Impact of European Expansion

15 5. New Patterns of World Trade

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