Presentation on theme: "Why European Exploration?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Why European Exploration? Consolidation of nations led to desire to push outwardNew technological developmentsGod, Gold, GloryCannons are invented, make it easier to attack and conquerCannons were mounted on shipsCaravel ship – more cargo, easier to maneuver. Can also put cannons on it.Magnetic compass – determine directionAstrolabe – used to determine location/latitudeCan also relate it to curiosity about the universe that people had in Renaissance society.
2 Who started it? Portugal Henry the Navigator 1394-1460 Bartholomew DiazMagellanPortugal is in a good geographic position to explore Africa. Portuguese objectives to Christianize, find gold, and an overseas route to India.The Spanish will pick up these goals too.Henry the Navigator sent annual expeditions to Africa. Portuguese gradually established trading posts along the coast and penetrated inland. This is the “golden age” of Portugal and virtually the only time we will hear about them in the course (which doesn’t mean they are not important…simply this is the height of Portuguese power).1487 Bartholomew Diaz rounds the Cape of Good HopeSet up trading posts in IndiaMagellan circumnavigates the world – sailing for Spain (makes Portugal mad)
3 Employed by Ferdinand and Isabella Has become a controversial figure4 voyagesBrought on the Golden Century of Spain (1500s)
4 Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Official European Colony ExplorersConquistadoresThe Spanish brought in lots of wealth from the Americas, mostly in precious metalsThis brought on their Golden Age and many say their downfall:Overpopulation created an economic crisis. In addition Spain had expelled some of its best farmers and merchants, so they were not equipped to deal with the crisis. The wealth from the New World caused inflation. Spain was headed for a crash (more on that later).Official European ColonyMissionariesPermanent Settlers
5 The “Columbian Exchange” SquashAvocadoPeppersSweet PotatoesTurkeyPumpkinTobaccoQuinineCocoaPineappleCassavaPOTATOPeanutTOMATOVanillaMAIZESyphilisTrinketsLiquorGUNSMigration of people led to an exchange of flora and fauna, plants and disease.SMALLPOX kills millions of Native Americans: for example smallpox killed 24 out of 15 million.OliveCOFFEE BEANBananaRiceOnionTurnipHoneybeeBarleyGrapePeachSUGAR CANEOatsCitrus FruitsPearWheatHORSECattleSheepPigsSmallpoxFluTyphusMeaslesMalariaDiptheriaWhooping Cough
13 Impact of European Expansion Native populations ravaged by disease.Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [“Price Revolution”]New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].Deepened colonial rivalries.5. Slave trade