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A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492 Motives for European Exploration 1.Crusades and later Ottoman invasion  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. 2.Renaissance.

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Presentation on theme: "A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492 Motives for European Exploration 1.Crusades and later Ottoman invasion  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. 2.Renaissance."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492

3 Motives for European Exploration 1.Crusades and later Ottoman invasion  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. 2.Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples. 3.Reformation  refugees & missionaries. 4.Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. 5.Technological advances. 6.Fame and fortune.

4 New Maritime Technologies Hartman Astrolabe (1532) Better Maps [Portulan] Sextant Mariner’s Compass

5 New Weapons Technology

6 Prince Henry, the Navigator School for Navigation, 1419

7 Portuguese Maritime Empire 1.Exploring the west coast of Africa. 2.Bartolomeo Dias, Vasco da Gama, Calicut. 4.Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).

8 Christofo Colon [ ]

9 Columbus’ Four Voyages

10 Other Voyages of Exploration

11 Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c

12 Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”

13 Maya

14 Aztec

15 Inca

16 Fernando Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Montezuma II vs.vs.

17 How was conquest achieved? Disease Technology/warfare strategies Alliances End of the world predicted and initial friendly welcome.

18 How was conquest achieved? Disease: small pox

19 Technology

20 Division among the people

21 End of the world predicted

22 Mexico Surrenders to Cortez

23 Francisco Pizarro Other Spanish Conquests: The Incas Atahualpa vs.

24 Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores Missionaries Permanent Settlers Official European Colony!

25 European Empires in the Americas

26 The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles MestizosMulattos Native Indians Black Slaves

27 Encomienda System and peonage Monopoly created with mercantilism

28

29 The “Columbian Exchange”  Squash  Avocado  Peppers  Sweet Potatoes  Turkey  Pumpkin  Tobacco  Quinine  Cocoa  Pineapple  Cassava  POTATO  Peanut  TOMATO  Vanilla  MAIZE  Syphilis  Olive  COFFEE BEAN  Banana  Rice  Onion  Turnip  Honeybee  Barley  Grape  Peach  SUGAR CANE  Oats  Citrus Fruits  Pear  Wheat  HORSE  Cattle  Sheep  Pigs  Smallpox  Flu  Typhus  Measles  Malaria  Diptheria  Whooping Cough  Trinkets  Liquor  GUNS

30 Odd little fact…the red dye used in Spain’s enemy Britain’s uniforms was bought from Spanish colonies.

31 Treasures from the Americas!

32 The Slave Trade 1.Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. 2.Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations. First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in ,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries. 3.Between 16 c & 19 c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.

33 Latin Americans had not made good slaves as they were dying from disease and escaping. Also some laws passed from Catholic monarchs that slavery was immoral except in the case of Africans.

34 Father Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws  1542, ignored and led to more African slavery

35 Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

36 Slave Ship “Middle Passage”

37 “Coffin” Position Below Deck

38 African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships!

39 Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

40 The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Guadalajara Cathedral Our Lady of Guadalupe Our Lady of Guadalupe Spanish Mission Spanish Mission

41 Church was complicit in oppression and conquering lands

42 The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

43 New Colonial Rivals 1.Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. 2.Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines. 3.First English expedition to the Indies in Surat in NW India in Dutch arrive in India in 1595.

44 New Colonial Rivals

45 Impact of European Expansion 1.Native populations ravaged by disease and slavery. 2.Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [“Price Revolution”] 3.New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”] 4.Deepened colonial rivalries and belief in mercantilism.

46 5. New Patterns of World Trade

47 slavery/http://flocabulary.com/conquistadors-and- slavery/


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