Presentation on theme: "Renewable vs. Non-renewable energy Prepered by A. Gritsevskyi, International Atomic Energy Agency."— Presentation transcript:
Renewable vs. Non-renewable energy Prepered by A. Gritsevskyi, International Atomic Energy Agency
Do we have any problem? In most cases … there is no problem for energy statistics to identify is that specific energy form belongs to renewable or non-renewable – not necessarily true for other domain (geology, environment, business) Problems start when we talk about energy technology or dealing with some grey areas Lack of clear definition and partial disagreement on interpretation terms
What is in Series F Manuals? 29E, 44 and 56E No real definition Defined by listing:
Extra note in 56E Fuelwood should be considered as renewable only if rate of planting it faster or equal to rate at which it is cut Should something like that applied for large scale of hydropower as currently there is tendency not to name such technology as strictly renewable?
Multiple ways to give a definition Postulating - listing what it is and what it is not Giving criteria and checking if particular source of energy meets it Combination of both
Example 1 Energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible (unlike, for example the fossil fuels, of which there is a finite supply). Renewable sources of energy include wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic and solar thermal energy NOT OK as all energy sources we know within defined system (Earth) are finite and fusion power, technically non-renewable, could be considered practically inexhaustible
Example 2 energy generated from resources that are unlimited, rapidly replenished or naturally renewable such as wind, water, sun, wave and refuse, and not from the combustion of fossil fuels Better, but rapidly is rather subjective term, so what about peat? (see attached paper)
Example 3 and 4 energy flows which occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment, such as wind and solar new and renewable energy sources are energy sources including solar energy, geothermal energy, wind power, hydropower, ocean energy (thermal gradient, wave power and tidal power), biomass, draught animal power, fuelwood, peat, oil shale and tar sands, UN Glossary of Environment Statistics F-67E
From Renewable Energy in Europe Renewable Energy Sources – All natural energy flows that are inexhaustible (i.e., renewable) from an anthropogenic point of view: solar radiation; hydropower; wind; geothermal; wave, and tidal energy; and biomass
From Renewable Energy in the United States Renewable Energy – Resources that are naturally replenishing but flow limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time.
Grey areas Municipal Waste or any waste from potentially unsustainable use of biomass and/or unclear mixed use of fossil fuel and renewable Origin of the problem – derived fuel with potentially multiple sources No clear solution provided in the available literature – treated differently from case-to-case and region-by-region Should be addressed jointly with environmental statistics experts
Age of different types of fuel within parentheses is maximum age Source: Hans Joosten Renewability revisited: on folly and swindle in peat energy politics Fuel typeAge of fuel (in years) Reed, straw0,5 - 3 1 – 5 (Living) wood5 – 100 (- 5000) Peat100 –120,000 (-10 million) Lignite0,1 - 50 million Coal20 - 325 million Oil shale65 - 500 million Willow coppice
Energy flux(flow) and energy store from M. Hoexter's What is Renewable Energy Anyway? Energy flux Energy store
Non-renewable energy sources are energy stores with zero or a minute rate of replenishment relative to its depletion by human beings. Most non-renewable energy sources are converted to usable energy by thermal or nuclear reactions. Non-renewable energy sources have stored the natural energy flux of Earths biological and geological past or of the formation of elements in the early history of the Universe
Renewable energy sources are types of natural energy flux useful for human ends regularly occurring on or near Earths surface and, additionally, useful natural energy stores that are replenished by natural flux within the time frame of conceivable human use. All known renewable energy sources originate in, or are close derivatives of, electromagnetic radiation of our Sun, the Earths and Moons gravitational fields and heat radiating from earths interior. Renewable energy sources are practically inexhaustible though some sources such as geothermal and ocean thermal energy conversion may become locally depleted by human use at a rate that exceeds replenishment by natural flux.
Global energy balance and flows without anthropogenic interference Source: Energy Primer, Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific Analyses, IPCC
Three questions to the London Group Do you agree that the definition of renewable/non- renewable should focus on renewability only and should be independent of the purpose behind – otherwise it will be never accepted generally that any fuel or energy form should be strictly defined as renewable/non renewable without any exception that the timeframe of conceivable human use and close derivatives of electromagnetic radiation of our sun has to be defined exactly and the final consequence Renewable technologies than are not necessarily environmentally sound, sustainable or safe