Presentation on theme: "Indicators for the 2 nd World Water Development Report (WWDR-II) World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP)"— Presentation transcript:
Indicators for the 2 nd World Water Development Report (WWDR-II) World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP)
WWAP Mandate By coordinating the inputs from 24 UN agencies Describe the State of Water Resources: – Assess needs, uses and demands on the resource. – Define critical problems. – Assess the coping capacity of societies. – Assess the effectiveness of policies. Enhance capacities of countries to make national assessments. Develop indicators to monitor and report progress against targets.
The WWAP Challenge Areas Meeting Basic Needs (Health) Water for Food Water and Ecosystems Water and Industry Water and Energy Valuing Water Managing Risks Sharing Water Governing Water Wisely Human Settlements
World Water Development Report II Contents: (to be published 22 March 2006) Section 1: Setting the Scene Section 2: Challenges to Life and Well-being Section 3: Management Responses Section 4: Case Studies Section 5: Conclusions and recommendations for action
Section 1: Setting the Scene Chapter 1: Global change UNESCO Chapter 2: The Challenges of Governance UNDP, FAO/UNEP/UNCBD/ Regional Commissions Chapter 3: Water and Human Settlements UN-HABITAT, WHO/UNDESA Chapter 4: The State of the Water Resource WMO/UNESCO
Water and Governance WWDR-I No indicators WWDR-II - Global Survey: Freedom in the World - Political Rights and Civil Liberties - Access to information, participation and justice in water decisions (water quality related) - Baseline Survey: Assessing the Progress of Countries towards Achieving the WSSD 2005 Implementation Plan target on WRM/IWRM Planning
Nature of Water Resources in WWDR-II Water Resource Assessment Index - Status of WRA by country - Adequacy of current national assessments; - Effort for documentation about the changes of water resources; - Effort for gathering and accessibility to water resources data TARWR (Total annual renewable water resources) - Climate zones - Surface annual runoff (SWAR) % of TARWR - GW (Ground water) Annual recharge (GAR) as % of TARWR - Interaction - SW/GW as % TARWR - Inflow from other nations - Outflow to other nations - GW Aquifer Type (links to GW stored) Precipitation - Amount (mm/year) comparing current annual precipitation with historical precipitation values as % of normal precipitation Water Use Characteristics - Categories-all sources for 3 uses as % of TARWR - GW use sustainability as % of TARWR - GW use (%) in agriculture, municipalities, industry - SW use (%) in agriculture, municipalities, industry - SW use sustainability as % of TARWR
Section 2: Challenges to Life and Well-being - for equity and environmental sustainability Chapter 5: Water and Health WHO/UNICEF Chapter 6: Water and Ecosystems UNEP, UNECE/WHO/UNCBD/UNESCO/UNDESA/UNU Chapter 7: Water and Food FAO, WHO/UNEP/IAEA Chapter 8: Water and Industry UNDP, WHO/UNDESA Chapter 9: Water and Energy UNDP, WHO/UNEP/Regional Commissions
Water and Health WWDR-I - Distribution of unserved people – water supply - Distribution of unserved people – sanitation - Actual and total water supply coverage, global, urban and rural breakdown - Actual and total sanitation coverage, global, urban and rural breakdown - Incidence of Cholera in the world WWDR-II - The Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) - Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age - Prevalence of stunting among children under 5 years of age - Mortality rate of children under 5 years of age - Access to safe drinking water - Access to basic sanitation
Water and Ecosystem WWDR-I - Emissions of water pollutants by sector - Biological quality of rivers - Relative naturalness of land in major river basins - Water quality indicator values in selected countries - Number of threatened freshwater fish in selected countries - Proportion of species at risk - Living planet index: inland freshwater species - Changes in lake condition WWDR-II - Freshwater ecosystem degradation: Fragmentation and Flow Regulation of Rivers and Ecosystem Impact - Trend in freshwater habitat protection: Freshwater ecosystem, biomes and habitats protection - Protected areas and Ramsar site establishment - Trend in Freshwater species: Basic needs for ecosystem integrity or health - Ecosystem stress: Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Nitrogen (NO3 + NO2)
Water and Food WWDR-I - Proportion of undernourished in total population - Irrigated land as % of cultivated land - Per capita food consumption - Water required equivalent of main products - Yields and water requirements of irrigated and non-irrigated agriculture - Irrigated area as proportion of irrigation potential in developing countries - Area equipped for irrigation as % of cultivated land by country - Irrigation and water resources actual and predicted withdrawals - Agricultural water withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources - Water use efficiency in irrigation
Water and industry WWDR-I - Competing water uses for main income groups of countries (agricultural vs. industrial vs. domestic) : renamed Sectoral water use allocation - Proportion of organic water pollution, by main industrial sector - Industrial water efficiency, by country: renamed Industrial water productivity - Current levels of water withdrawal for industry, by river basin WWDR-II - Trends in ISO 14001 certification from 1997 to 2002: conduct water audit, improve anti-pollution measures, and evaluate environmental performance regularly - Sectoral water use allocation - Water withdrawal by sectors as a percentage of total water withdrawal - Organic water pollution (BOD) by industry - Industrial water productivity: Economic value added (in$) per cubic metre of water withdrawal by industry - Trends of water use: Global and regional industrial water withdrawals and consumption
Water and Energy WWDR-I - Distribution of households with access to electricity - Worlds electricity production - Deployment of hydropower and projections, by region - Proportion of hydropower electricity generation, by country - Installed hydro capacity (all schemes), by region WWDR-II - Volume of desalinated water for drinking quality water - Trends in energy consumption for water delivery/pumping - Capability of hydropower generation: Gross theoretical, Technically exploitable, and Economically exploitable - Carbon intensity (dioxide emissions) by electricity production - Access to electricity for domestic use - Evolution of electricity generation by fuel from 1971 to 2001 - Share of electricity generation by hydropower as a proportion of total electricity generation, and its evolution
Section 3: Management Responses Chapter 10: Managing risks WMO/UNESCO Chapter 11: Sharing water UNESCO Chapter 12: Valuing water UNDESA Chapter 13: Ensuring the knowledge base UNESCO/WMO
Managing risks WWDR-I - List of severe natural disaster - Major drought events and their consequences in the last century - Trends in causes of food emergencies - Trends in great natural catastrophes WWDR-II - Disaster risk index, - Risk and Policy Assessment Indicator proposed by PWRI (Tsukuba, Japan) - The Climate Vulnerability Index by CVI, CEH Wallingford, UK
Sharing water from Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential WWDR-I - Newly internationalized basins - Basins with unilateral projects and lack of institutional capacity (treaties/bodies/positive relations) - International basins where non-water related hostility exist between states WWDR-II - Operational/administrative Interdependencies for Sharing Water - Cooperation/conflict Index - Water Conflict Vulnerability Index - Sustainability/development Index
Valuing water WWDR-I - Annual investment in water for agriculture, water supply and sanitation, and environment & industry. - Sources of investment funds - Annual investment in urban and rural sanitation - Level of cost recovery for water supplies for agriculture - Price of water from municipal water supply systems - Comparison of the price of water from the public utilities and informal water vendors WWDR-II - Water sector share in total government spending vs Total government spending in all economic sectors - Actual vs desired level of public investment in water sector - Rate of recovery - actual collections as percent of collectable charges on yearly basis - Actual water price vs supply costs - for improving water use efficiency and securing financial sustainability of water utility - Water charges as percent of household income/expenditure
Ensuring the knowledge base WWDR-I - Gross Primary School enrolment - Illiteracy Rate - Research and Development Expenditure for selected countries - Number of television sets and radio receivers per 1000 people - Number of telephone lines per head - Expenditure on ICT - Number of hydrological monitoring stations, by WMO regions - Density hydrological monitoring stations worldwide WWDR-II - Knowledge Index (KI): Index, multi variable - Knowledge Assessment Methodology: Index, multiple variable - Number of water resource institutions - Number of water resource scientists - Water topics in school curriculum - Number of web sites with available water resources information
Indicator development - For appropriate water resources management - Monitor and evaluate the progress toward targets - A complex and slow process - Require widespread consultation - Have to be tested - Have to be modified in the light of experience WWAP UN and Working partners will continue efforts for indicator development
The State of The Worlds Freshwater Resources World Water Assessment Programme For Capacity-Building, Development and the Environment WWAP
Global change Global changes - Population growth, movement and age structures - Climate change - Geo-political changes and realignments - Technological changes - Trade and subsidies
Water and City WWDR-I - Water stress in regions around megacities - Distribution of urban population in more developed and lee developed regions (to 2015) - Proportion of urban populations with access to improved water supply and sanitation -Proportion of households in major cities connected to piped water and sewers WWDR-II Waiting for information
Nature of Water Resources WWDR-I - Long term average water resources - Country data on water resources - Water availability versus population - Mean annual precipitation World maximum point rainfalls for different durations - Worlds largest groundwater systems Groundwater use for agricultural irrigation Annual flows to the World Ocean - Largest Rivers in the World by Mean Annual Discharge with their Loads - Countries using the largest quantities of desalinated water and treated wastewater
Countries readiness to meet the Johannesburg implementation plan target on IWRM Plan preparation by 2005 (GWP Assessment) WHITE: Countries made good progress GREY: Countries taken some steps DARK GREY: Countries at an initial stage
Progress in drinking water coverage, 1990 - 2002 Source : Meeting the MDG Drinking Water & Sanitation Target, UNICEF/WHO
Progress in sanitation coverage, 1990 – 2002 Source : Meeting the MDG Drinking Water & Sanitation Target, UNICEF/WHO
Changes in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) for Significant Major Watersheds, by Region for the Periods 1979-1990 and 1991-2003 Coloured areas on the map indicate percentage change and histograms the mean concentration changes by region (UNEP-GEMS Water, 2004)
Changes in Nitrogen Concentrations for Significant Global Watersheds, by Region for the Periods 1979-1990 and 1991-2003 Coloured areas on the map indicate percentage change and histograms the mean concentration changes by region (UNEP-GEMS Water, 2004)
Fragmentation and Flow Regulation by Large River System Unaffected, moderately affected, strongly affected Source: Umea University and WRI (2004)
Definition We define safe drinking water as:water that is safe to drink and available in sufficient quantities for hygienic purposes. Our working definition of basic sanitation is: the lowest-cost option for securing sustainable access to safe, hygienic, and convenient facilities and services for excreta and sullage disposal that provide privacy and dignity while ensuring a clean and healthful living environment both at home and in the neighborhood of users.
Definition Renewable water resources: include all surface water and groundwater resources that are renewed on a yearly basis without consideration of the capacity to harvest and use this resource. Exploitable water resources: refer to the surface water or groundwater that is available with an occurrence of 90 % of the time, are considerably less than renewable water resources, but no universal method exists to assess such exploitable water resources. Agricultural water withdrawal: refers to the quantity of water withdrawn for agricultural purposes. It includes irrigation and livestock watering. Methods for computing agricultural water withdrawal vary from country to country.
2005 Environmental Sustainability Index Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy and Columbia University, Center for International Earth Science Information Network, in collaboration with World Economic Forum Authors of ESI stated that In many areas, decision-making has become increasingly data-driven, but the environmental domain has curiously lagged in this regard. Difficulty by widespread information gaps and uncertainties, environmental policy-making has often been based on generalized observations, best guesses, etc. Ability of nations to protect the environment 76 datasets have been integrated into 21 indicators of Environmental sustainability: Biodiversity, Land use, Water quality, Air quality, Reducing air pollution, Environmental health, etc.