Presentation on theme: "International Approaches to Labour Migration GTZ conference on Migration and Labour, Berlin 12 June 2007 Louka T. Katseli, Director, OECD Development Centre."— Presentation transcript:
International Approaches to Labour Migration GTZ conference on Migration and Labour, Berlin 12 June 2007 Louka T. Katseli, Director, OECD Development Centre
2 1 2 Should this be subject to negotiations?3 Where do interests of countries of origin and destination concerning labour migration overlap? Where do these interests diverge?
3 (1) Common Interests Securing Jobs –Mutual benefits if migrants and natives are employed in jobs suited to their skills Building Confidence –Responding effectively to economic and social pressures (e.g. reducing irregular and illegal migration) –Reversing the devolution of immigrant selection to employer traffickers and migrants –Better managing migration flows
4 Managing Global Labour Mobility What might an orderly, smart, flexibly regulated system look like? Put in place an Integrated Monitoring System Recruit workers that fill real needs Expand the options for legal migration (e.g. circular migration; renewable permits; etc.) Provide fair, equal and early access to labour markets Improve integration prospects Promote mobility partnerships Engage migrants and private stakeholders in mobility management
5 1 2 Should this be subject to negotiations?3 Where do interests of countries of origin and destination concerning labour migration overlap? Where do these interests diverge?
6 Opposed Interests Opposed interests are partly a function of the "disorderliness" of the current labour mobility system Social pressures associated with the mobility of low-skilled workers Economic tensions related to mobility of the highly skilled A managed system could distribute fiscal and financial burdens better
7 Mobility of low-skilled workers Contributes more to poverty reduction in sending countries Tensions look different in different places and institutional regimes Employment and wage effects mostly small or beneficial Disorderly system increases social tensions
8 Mobility of high-skilled workers Economic tensions in critical occupational areas Degree of utilisation of human resources in sending countries determines impact Replenishment capacity of sending countries: a critical factor
9 1 2 Should this be subject to negotiations?3 Where do interests of countries of origin and destination concerning labour migration overlap? Where do these interests diverge?
10 Mobility Partnerships: Why? Externalities generated by international migration requires collective action (e.g. brain drain; transit countries) Gains for all parties possible through better management of opportunities and sharing of responsibilities
11 Mobility partnerships: What regulatory area? Bilateral arrangements proliferate Considerable regional spillovers Regional arrangements: potential interests converge but weak governance systems GATS Mode 4 provision of services: a powerful instrument to organise markets
12 Regional Schemes? Political frameworks and legal principles missing Strengthening of governance structures needed Regional mobility instruments need to be introduced/reinforced (e.g. regional visas) Development co-operation and assistance schemes need to be developed
13 Mobility partnership: What role for local communities? Coping strategies and integration: a local challenge Critical interactions between migrants and local communities need better management Modes of financing and governance vary across communities Inclusive social policies needed
14 Mobility Partnerships: Four levels 2. Managing Labour Markets 3. Managing Economic Adjustment 4. Managing Political and Social Adjustment 1. Managing mobility
15 Mobility Partnerships: Whats Involved? 1. Managing Mobility 2. Managing Labour Markets 3. Managing Economic Adjustment 4. Managing Political and Social Adjustment (1) Mobility management Smart, renewable permits Information, communication and monitoring systems Simplification of admission, readmission and deportation procedures Specification of rights and responsibilities of migrants (2) Managing labour markets Opening up channels for legal immigration/emigration Agreed principles for regularisation procedures Portability of social security benefits Revisit codes of ethical conduct Phasing of benefits for immigrants Re-deployment of human-resources and replenishment of labour-market needs, supported by development assistance
16 Mobility Partnerships: Whats Involved? 1. Managing Mobility 2. Managing Labour Markets 3. Managing Economic Adjustment 4. Managing Political and Social Adjustment (3) Managing economic adjustment Fiscal impact and burden sharing Regional integration Financing infrastructure investment and improvements in social-delivery systems Innovative financial instruments for local development Reducing costs and improving access for remittances Diaspora for development programmes (4) Managing social and political adjustment Urban and social policies Engagement of diaspora communities in integration and development Second and third generation migrants Legal and political rights of migrants
17 Mobility Partnerships: For Whom? Benefits for Migrants: –Protection of human rights, –Improved information, –Lowering of costs Receiving countries: –Legal vs. irregular migration –An orderly system for labour-market needs –Sustainable co-operation and burden-sharing with sending countries –Improved integration prospects Sending countries: –Smoother adjustment to emigration –Strengthened replenishment capacity –Improved financial benefits –Expanded investment in human capital formation
18 Two forthcoming publications of the OECD Development Centre: Gaining From Migration: Managing a New Mobility System (2007) Migration and Development: Whats in it for Developing Countries? (2007)