Presentation on theme: "Instructional Design in a Technological World: Fitting Learning Activities Into the Larger Picture ICALT Presentation August 6, 2001 Robin Soine Wisconsin."— Presentation transcript:
Instructional Design in a Technological World: Fitting Learning Activities Into the Larger Picture ICALT Presentation August 6, 2001 Robin Soine Wisconsin Technical College System Foundation, Inc. UW Madison, PhD Student in Curriculum and Instruction
Statewide Performance-based Learning Model An approach to teaching and learning which requires advance description of knowledge, skills, and attitudes learners must achieve on exit from a course or program Informed by theory and best practice 1990-1992 development 1992 released In use statewide by Wisconsin and Michigan, USA
Who are the learners? What do they need to be able to achieve? How will I know when theyve achieved it? How will they get there? WHO WHAT WHEN HOW Model
Who Who are my learners? Why are they here? What experiences do they bring? What learning deficits do they have? What are their expectations? WHO Model
What What knowledge, skills, and attitudes must they achieve? How well must they perform those outcomes? WHAT Core Abilities Competencies Learning Objectives Performance Standards Model
When How will my learners know when they have arrived? How will their competence be measured? What strategy will I use for assessment? WHEN Performance Assessment Task Model
How How can I help learners build competence? What activities will I plan? How can I address different learning styles, especially in online courses? How can I use more learner- centered activities? How do I design activities around learning cycle? HOW Learning Activities Model
Copyright 2001. WIDS. 4 4 Plan strategies for HOW theyll learn 1 1 Identify learners 2 2 Determine WHAT they must achieve 3 3 Establish how youll measure WHEN they have achieved Model
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Learning Activities: strategies for mastering specific learning outcomes (often thought of as assignments) How
cause learningdeliver instruction Practice Simulation Discussion Presentation Demonstration Methods vs. Media
q computer q case study q Internet q simulation q discussion q demonstration q teacher o text o role play o video o transparencies o practice Which cause learning? Methods cause learning, media deliver instruction. Methods vs. Media
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Sensing Memory What are we doing to the learners mind? selector large capacity short duration
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Working Memory processor powerful fragile short duration small capacity
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Long-Term Memory information storage large capacity requires retrieval
Copyright 2001. WIDS. insert frequent practice vary the learning format design with a bias for learner- centered methods provide learning plans support all stages of the learning process When designing activities online Clark, Ruth.
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Too much information Too fast Fried Brain Syndrome
Copyright 2001. WIDS. To avoid cognitive overload: break learning into manageable chunks clear the working memory with meaningful practice
Copyright 2001. WIDS. People learn in different ways Vary the Learning Format
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Method (Discussion? Simulation?) Media (Computer? Paper?) Environment (Outside work group?) Interpersonal context (F2F? Electronic?) Feedback (Written? Verbal?) Givens Vary the Learning Format
Application Motivation PracticeComprehension The Learning Cycle
Stage One: Motivation kFocus attention kAnswers: Why do I need or want to learn this material? Learners: Example: (Competency = Critique Speeches ) _____1. Describe characteristics that make a speech or presentation effective for you. Post your description to the Discussion for this learning plan. _____2. THINK about the many ways you have been critiqued by teachers, family, and friends. How was their feedback helpful or not helpful? Why was it so? Were strengths and weaknesses both pointed out? Was it better to hear both or just one of them?
access information they need to perform target competency process content in working memory minimize use of teacher-centered inform activities such as listen to a lecture or read the text Stage Two: Comprehension Learners: _____3.POST two examples in the Discussion for Learning Plan 6 of how feedback you received was helpful and not helpful. After reading what others have written, do you see a pattern to what constitutes good feedback? _____4.READ the six criteria to giving effective feedback on pages 68- 69 in your text. Are any of these already second-nature to you? Are any of these new to you?
Stage Three: Practice (Encode to long-term memory) engage in guided practice have the opportunity to DO what they are learning receive continuing improvement assessment and feedback Learners: _____5. REVIEW the Speech Evaluation Form while you read a speech at the website http//:www.schoolforchampions.com/speeches.htm, www.artofspeaking.com, or another site. If possible, find an online video of the speech.
Stage Four: Application apply what they have learned to real world problems show that they have learned set the stage for next learning task Learners: _____6.ATTEND a community/campus speaker (i.e., sermon, lawyer's arguments, local speaker, etc.). FILL OUT the Speech Evaluation Form. If it is not appropriate to fill it out during the speech, please do so as soon as possible. _____7.WATCH the videotape of your Special Occasion speech. COMPLETE the Speech Evaluation Form while you view yourself.
So, whats the teachers role? Support All Stages of the Learning Process
Application Motivation Practice Compre- hension Inspire Inform (sage on the stage) Mentor Coach (guide on the side)
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Learner Advantages of PBL Online What is learned is skill based; not outlines of information Expectations are set in advance; learners plan how to invest time and energy
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Grades are based on how well learners perform skill; not on how well others perform Learners are actively involved Learners have documentation showing skill Learner Advantages of PBL Online
Learning Plan 12 Instructional Materials Introduction: Instructional materials contain the actual instructional content. You us them to communicate information to learners... Competency Develop instructional materials that support specific learning activities Performance Standards Criteria: i nstructional materials are consistent with the core abilities competencies and learning objectives instructional materials support the learning activities instructional materials are accurate, complete... Learning Objectives: a. Explain the effect of learning materials on the instructional experience. b. Identify the benefits of instructional materials... Learning Activities: __1. PREVIEW the learning objectives and performance standards. __ 2. BRAINSTORM a list of characteristics that learners do and do not like about instructional materials (use the worksheet)... __3. VIEW Video Lesson #12 Instructional Materials.... Performance Assessment: __ 1. SUBMIT the instructional materials you developed in Assignment 12 to your facilitator for review. Why? What? How? When?
Copyright 2001. WIDS. Theory/PracticeTheorists Learning Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom, D. Krathwohl, B. Masia, Robert Gagne Cognitive Processing Ruth Colvin Clark, Renate and Geoffrey Caine, Sue Berryman, Patricia Cross, Robert Sylvester Multiple Intelligence Howard Gardner Accelerated Learning Paul Scheele, David Meier Performance-Based Learning Robert Mager, Michael Schmoker, Ruth Colvin Clark, Ralph Tyler Dimensions of Learning Robert Marzano Learning Styles David Kolb, Bernice McCarthy Learning Cycle R. Gagne, Bernice McCarthy Performance Assessment Grant Wiggins, Robert Mager, Michael, Robert Marzano, Donald Kirkpatrick Component Display Theory (classification of content and knowledge) David Merrill Workplace Skills A. Carnevale, Instructional Materials F. Kiewra and G.M. Frank, Performance Expectations Robert Mager, Norman Gronlund, Robert Marzano, Robert Gagne Classroom Assessment Thomas Angelo, Patricia Cross Instructional/Learning Design Ruth Colvin Clark, William Rothwell and H.C. Kazanas, Walter Dick and Lou Carey, Curtis Finch and John Crunkilton, Jerrold Kemp, David Pucel Adult Learning Jerald Apps, Alan Knox, Malcolm Knowles, Alan Tough Learning Transfer Ruth Colvin Clark