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Atoms and Elements Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Atoms and Elements Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atoms and Elements Notes

2 Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space Made of atoms

3 Matter Proton: Neutron: neutral & in the nucleus Matter Atom Electron:
Positive & in the nucleus Neutron: neutral & in the nucleus Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space Atom Smallest unit of matter Electron: Negative, tiny, & outside of the nucleus

4 ATOMS Smallest unit of matter.
Atoms make up everything (that has mass and takes up space).

5 Protons (+) Determines the identity of the Element
Represents the Atomic # Positively charged Nucleus Part of the atoms mass

6 Neutrons – No charge Neutral – No charge Nucleus
Part of the atoms mass

7 Electrons (-) Negatively charged smallest particles Outside nucleus
Found in the electron cloud Located in energy levels

8 Atomic Particle Size

9 Nucleus Center of the atom Made up of Protons and Neutrons
Makes up the atoms MASS Positively Charged!

10 Electron Cloud Area around the nucleus where electrons are found.
Negatively Charged

11 Energy Levels Levels within the electron cloud that hold a specific # of electrons. 1st level - 2 electrons 2nd level - up to 8 electrons 3rd level – up to 8 or 18

12 Valence Electrons Electrons on the outermost energy level of the atom.
Determine the atoms chemical properties, including reactivity.

13 Atomic Structure Review
Protons (+) make up the nucleus Neutrons (no charge) Make up the nucleus Electrons (–) Found in energy levels around the nucleus in the electron cloud

14 Atomic Number Top # on the periodic table # of protons in the atom

15 Chemical Symbol 1 or 2 letter abbreviation for an element name
1st letter Capitalized 2nd letter – always lowercase Helium - He

16 Atomic Mass Bottom # Mass of the atom Located in the nucleus
Equal to Protons + Neutrons

17 Determining the # of subatomic particles in atoms
Use the following A = P = E M – A = N Atomic # = Protons = Electrons Mass – Atomic # = Neutrons

18 Atom Models

19 Valence Electrons The electrons in the outermost energy level of the atom. What element is this? How many valence electrons does it have?

20 ELEMENTS All the atoms that make up our universe
Identified by the atomic # (# of protons)

21 3 Main Groups on the Periodic Table

22 Metals Make up most of the elements All solid except Mercury
Has luster (shiny) Good conductors of heat and electricity Malleable – hammered or shaped into thin sheets Ductile – stretched into wires

23 Metals

24 Nonmetals Usually gases or brittle solids
Poor conductors of heat and electricity They are insulators Right side of the periodic table Only 17 nonmetals

25 Metalloids Called Semi-metals
Share properties of both metals and nonmetals Located on the zig-zag line between the metals and nonmetals.

26 Groups/Families 18 groups Vertical Columns on the periodic table
Same # of valence electrons Same chemical properties including reactivity Reactivity – Elements tendency to undergo chemical reactions

27 Periods 7 horizontal rows on the periodic table
Consist of elements with the same number of electron levels.

28 Alkali Metals Group #1 All metals 1 Valence Electron Very reactive
Most reactive – the only need to lose 1 valence electron in chemical bonds

29 Alkaline-Earth Metals
Group #2 All Metals 2 Valence Electrons Very reactive but less than group #1. Only have to lose 2 valence electrons in chemical bonds

30 Valence Electrons Group 1 – all elements have 1 valence electron
have 2 valence electrons

31 Transition Metals Groups # 3-12 All metals 1 or 2 valence electrons
Less reactive than group #2 Also contains lanthanide and actinide series

32 Groups # 13-16 Elements change from metals to nonmetals and include the metalloids. Atoms have 10 fewer valence electrons than the group #. Boron Group # valence electrons Carbon Group # valence electrons Nitrogen Group # valence electrons Oxygen Group # valence electrons

33 Halogens Group 17 All nonmetals 7 valence electrons Very reactive
Only need to gain 1 more electron for a total of 8!

34 Noble Gases/Inert Gases
Group # 18 All nonmetals 8 valence electrons - except helium only has 2. Unreactive Have a full outer electron level 2 on the 1st level 8 on the 2nd level

35 Hydrogen stands alone 1 valence electron Very reactive
Colorless, odorless gas at room temperature. Low density Reacts explosively with Oxygen

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