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Interconnected Competitive Futures

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1 Interconnected Competitive Futures
EDUCATION INTELLIGENCE Interconnected Competitive Futures Janet Ilieva, PhD 1

2 Internationalisation of Higher Education
Internationalisation of students Internationalisation of teaching and research Internationalisation of education policies


4 However – there was no growth in the proportion of the internationally mobile students
World HE enrolments Internationally mobile students 2000 97,205,098 1.8% 2001 104,103,583 2002 113,669,904 1.9% 2003 122,085,254 2.0% 2004 129,690,294 2005 135,925,247 2006 143,133,002 2007 151,253,144 Source: British Council Analysis and UIS data

5 Changing Patterns of Mobility
However, the outbound mobility would vary from country to country While the world average is 1.8%, this ratio for Sub-Saharan Africa is 5.9% Trend data also show increased regional mobility: In Latin America and the Caribbean, for instance, the percentage of mobile students remaining within the region has risen from 11% in 1999 to 23% in 2007 In East Asia and the Pacific, two out of every five mobile students (42%) remained within the region in 2007 compared to 36% in Western Europe (77%) and North America (39%) showed little change in comparison to 1999



8 Small countries big role
However countries with more prominent role (UIS) are: Liechtenstein 86% Macao (China) 50% Qatar 28% Cyprus 25% Local national sources suggest emerging new players in the international student place

9 Changing ratios in the outward/inward mobility – new players

10 Logarithmic scale – who is where

11 Observations Traditional sending countries - China, India, Korea, Malaysia and others - are increasingly hosting international students. The rate at which this is happening is greater than the world average growth rate Traditional host countries (UK, US, Australia) remain mostly static. There are expectations for greater outward mobility in the future which would contribute to more balanced student flows The countries in the middle – mainly in Europe – show a more balanced approach in their inward and outward student flows. These are also countries heavily engaged in Erasmus mobility, hence greater exposure to study abroad There is an increased mobility towards Japan, however, outward mobility is set to decline in absolute numbers related to the country demographics. In addition, Japan appears to be the only country where international students pay lower fee (i.e. no fee) than local students.

12 Move from reactive to proactive internationalisation
Shift from aid to trade (Hans de Wit) Increased TNE and reaching out to the students Widening the access to tertiary education overseas in emerging markets In mature markets: Quality assurance frameworks Increased relevance to the market through providing niche subjects Internationalisation at home through: Internationalisation of the curriculum Internationalisation of research

13 Education and Academic Collaboration (continued)
Significant increase in cross-border collaboration, however, consistent and comparable data are difficult to source The International Association of Universities’ (IAU) 3rd Annual Survey covering 745 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) found the following: 87% of HEIs surveyed stated that internationalisation features in their institutional mission and/or overall strategy plan 78% stated that internationalisation had increased in importance over the past 3 years However, the priority remains on inward and outward student mobility and student exchanges Overall, countries are much better at assessing education activities taking place at home, rather than those overseas

14 Branch campuses of domestic institutions abroad and overseas institutions at home (% of total)

15 Research collaboration
On average one third of the global research publications is now co-authored with international researchers Germany records the highest level of collaboration in publications at 50%; followed by Australia (42.3%) and UK and Malaysia holding a joint 3rd place at (42%) The US has the highest number of joint patent applications at 168,605 in 2007, closely followed by Japan’s 167,772 India has the highest proportion of joint patent applications relative to total patent applications at 83%, closely followed by Australia at 75% and Malaysia at 72% OECD (2011) suggest a decline in the quality of patents produced in the US, UK and Japan and increase in those produced in China and India Russia at 4% has the lowest proportion of joint patent applications

16 Internationalisation of national policies
National Policy Index create an index that captures the appeal of national education systems to engage internationally and the degree of international education activities and collaborations capture the implications of these policies on student recruitment and international research output identify countries with best prospects for engagement in trans-national education track changes over time

17 Countries covered East Asia: Hong Kong Japan Indonesia Malaysia
South Korea Thailand Vietnam The original study covered: Australia Brazil China Germany India Japan Malaysia Nigeria Russia UK USA The study was later expanded to include: France The Netherlands Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE

18 Structure of the International Education index
Openness Strategy Visa & immigration Environment for institutions Quality assurance and degree recognition Cross-border quality assurance and accreditation Recognition of overseas qualifications Entry standards and quality of provision Access and Equity Promotion of outbound mobility Promotion of inbound mobility Sustainable development policies

19 OVERALL Score/10 1 Germany 8.4 2 France 8.2 3 Australia 8.0 4 Netherlands 7.5 5 UK 7.2 6 China 6.4 7 Hong Kong 6.3 8 South Korea 6.2 9 Malaysia 6.0 10 US 5.7 =11 Indonesia 5.5 Thailand 13 Japan 4.7 14 Russia 4.5 15 Singapore 4.4 16 Nigeria 3.8 =17 Brazil 3.5 India Vietnam 20 UAE 3.4 21 Saudi Arabia 2.8 22 Qatar 2.2

20 Government Policies and Student Mobility
Impact of the Internationalisation Strategy section of the International Education Index on inward student mobility

21 Impact of National Policies on Academic Collaboration
Strong positive relationship between “internationalisation strategy” policy score and proportion of peer-reviewed academic articles written with overseas co-authors Correlation coefficient = 0.74 There is a strong positive relationship between “quality assurance and recognition” policy score and proportion of peer-reviewed academic articles written with overseas co-authors Correlation coefficient = 0.67

22 New study – education opportunities index
Education opportunities index – new study identifying opportunities for: International student recruitment, based on countries’ socio- demographic outlook and economic growth prospects Drawing recruitment scenarios based on countries’ trade patterns Opportunities for international collaboration in teaching and research based on countries’ expanding tertiary education capacity

23 About Education Intelligence
The British Council promotes UK education and culture in the areas of Arts, English, Education and Society in over a hundred countries worldwide. With exploding global interest in education, the British Council’s Education Intelligence team provides cutting-edge research, data and analysis in the field of higher education. Our market intelligence service supports clients in forming individual international strategies by offering information on student mobility flows, student decision-making and current national policies regarding higher education. Our network of resources allows us to produce robust and cutting-edge trends analysis that can help shape the global debate in the education sector. Education Intelligence research reports: Student Insight: why students decide to study overseas Students in Motion: where students go globally to study Country Briefs: concise country profiles Global Gauge: a comparison of international education activity Partnership Access: where to locate fruitful collaborations Follow us: ‘IHE_Exchange’ Purchase reports and read our blog: Conference PPTs:

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