Presentation on theme: "TOWARDS A CLEANER, GREENER & SMARTER INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY"— Presentation transcript:
1TOWARDS A CLEANER, GREENER & SMARTER INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY S. Das Gupta٭& Bhaskar Roy٭٭ The authors are with M. N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd, Consulting Engineers,KolkataPresentation made at 4th India Steel Summit organised by ASSOCHAM inNew Delhi on 11th August 2010.
4Apparent Steel Consumption – India vs World 1981198519901995200020052009WorldIndiaChina542Apparent Steel Consumption – India vs World
5Indian Steel Industry on a Strong Growth Path 55 mill. tonsActual consumption65 mill. tonsConsidering 7.5% CAGR between&120 mill. tonsConsidering 8% CAGR between &140 mill. tonsConsidering 10% CAGR between &2015-16Likely Future Steel Demand Scenario in India
6Scope for Increasing Rural Steel Consumption ! YearPopulation, millPer capita steel, kgTotal steel, mill. tonsUrbanRuralNational345810153353255370825166461.53.565430835210690595UrbanRuralUrbanRural2468The Rural-Urban Steel Divide in India
8Major Factors in Ensuring Steel Industry Sustainability ٭ : Energy intensity.Greenhouse gas emissions.Material efficiency, i.e. % of by-products re-used.٭ As defined by World Steel Association member companies.
9Average of Integrated Plants 6.5 Gcal/tcs SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS ININDIAN INTEGRATED STEEL PLANTS
10SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION – INDIA VS OTHER COUNTRIES Considerable potential to reduce energy intensity in India.SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION –INDIA VS OTHER COUNTRIES(2008/2009 figures)
11STEEL INDUSTRY & GHG EMISSIONS Source: Meeting the Challenge of Climate Change by Ian Christmas, Secretary General, World Steel Association, 5th China International Steel Congress, Shanghai, 2nd June 2008.STEEL INDUSTRY & GHG EMISSIONS
12CO2 EMISSION BY STEEL INDUSTRY– INDIA VS OTHER COUNTRIES (2008/2009 figures)
13EXTENT OF BY-PRODUCTS REUSE– INDIA VS OTHER COUNTRIES <80%EXTENT OF BY-PRODUCTS REUSE–INDIA VS OTHER COUNTRIES(2008/2009 figures)
14Making Indian Steel Industry More Environment Friendly :Domestic steel production bound to growsubstantially in future.Inevitable impact on the environment.Indian steel producers seized of the situation -concerted efforts to mitigate harmful effects.However, need for more R&D efforts to develop‘break-through’ technologies.Explore possibility of collaborating with agenciesinvolved in R&D activities.
15International Efforts at Developing New Technologies/Processes: POSCO: substantially reduce CO2 emissionsin years through hydrogen-basedsteelmaking.ULCOS (Ultra Low CO2 Steelmaking) programin EU since 2004 to develop ‘breakthrough’technologies.
16CONCEPTUAL SCHEME OF HYDROGEN-BASED Iron OreCONCEPTUAL SCHEME OF HYDROGEN-BASEDSTEEL MAKING OF POSCO
17Salient Features of ULCOS Program: Objective - R&D initiative to reduce CO2emissions by developing new breakthroughtechnologiesConsortium of major European steelmakers& Rio Tinto.Involves Carbon Capture & Sequestration (CCS).
18Salient Features of ULCOS Program cont’d: Some of the process routes identified:Top Gas RecyclingBlast Furnace (TGR-BF).Smelting reduction process –HIsarna; incorporating somefeatures of HIsmelt process.Others:Shaft furnace DR process – ULCORED.Electrolysis variants – ULCOWIN & ULCOLYSIS.
20Major Demand Drivers for Indian Steel Industry: Construction, Automotive & Infrastructure sectors– major drivers of steel demand in India.Automobiles - Second fastest growing marketafter China.Need to develop/produce ‘smart’ steels withdesired properties to support sectoral growth.Typical requirements:For automotive steels - superior formability,without compromising on weldability.For structural applications - high strength, highcorrosion resistance, better weldability.
21High-Strength Steels for Automotive Applications: High-strength steels provides better mechanical propertiesor greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel.Few grades developed:Dual phase steelTRIP steelTWIP steelEvolving AHSS grades:Nano steelsUltra-fine grain steels
22MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME HIGH STRENGTH AUTO-GRADE STEELS DPTRIPIFMildAustenitic-BasedSteels, e.g. TWIPMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOMEHIGH STRENGTH AUTO-GRADE STEELS
23Development of steel foam: Metal foams with controlled porosity - emerging class ofultra-lightweight materials receiving increased attention.Weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency & increasedpassenger safety in transportation systems.Safer vehicles due to crash energy absorption capabilities.
24Status of Developmental Work in India: Work on TRIP / TWIP & other high strength steels inprogress.R&D activity on development of steel foam.Bulk production of high strength steels for automotiveapplication still to take off.
26Better Utilisation of Iron Ore Resource: India endowed with large reserves of iron ore – need fora policy for better resource utilisation.Lowering cut-off grade from 55-58% to ~45% & explorationto greater depths for resource estimation.With advances in beneficiation techniques, lower gradein-situ material, reject dumps & slimes can be economicallyupgraded & gainfully utilised.Lowering environmental degradation – 2.5 mtpy washingplant impacts 5 acres of forest land & about 12,500 treesannually.
27Better Operating Practices for Reducing Energy Intensity: Higher agglomerates in BF burden lower Si in hot metalfor 1 mt hot metal – 7,000 Gcal less energy requiredfor every 0.1% lowering in Si content.Greater application of heat recovery systems –introduction of modern, energy efficient technologies.maximising waste energy recycling, e.g. CDQ, TRT,sinter waste heat recovery, BF stoves waste heatrecovery.Wider utilisation of NNS castingbeam blankstrip casting
28Utilisation of Iron & Steel Making Slags: At ThyssenKrupp Stahl, BF & SMS slags processedinto valuable materials for use in cement making, roadconstruction, or as soil conditioner.ArcelorMittal in Brazil has developed a new way ofproducing construction bricks from steel mill slag.What Nippon Steel is doing:
29Green Buildings & Energy Optimisation: Misc. EquipmentTypical Energy ConsumptionPattern in Buildings:Source: CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business CentrePotential for energy savings 40 – 50% in new buildings; forexisting buildings, the potential can be 20-25%.Design should ensure building gets maximum day lighting.Maximise use of solar power; explore wind energy possibility.Use of energy saving materials & equipment like heat resistivepaints, fly ash blocks, insulation materials, lighting controls,BIPV (Building Integrated Photo Voltaics), etc.
30Stricter Monitoring of Air & Water Pollution: Mandatory environmental audit to identify & prioritizeareas for short, medium & long term addressal throughappropriate mitigation measures.Formation of dedicated & specialised EnvironmentManagement Divisions at corporate & plant levels.Stricter enforcement of relevant provisions of Environment(Protection) Acts & Rules, with severe penalties fordeliberate non-compliance.
32Indian steel industry already on high growth path. Enhanced domestic steel production will call forhigher demands on various inputs & also entailgreater emissions.Indian steel industry required to adhere tocommitments made at Kyoto & Copenhagen.Industry competitiveness to be ensured bybalancing economic & environmental aspects.
33Indian steel industry seized of the matter & various steps already initiated.However, considerable potential exists toimprove sustainability of Indian steel industry.Significant reduction of CO2 emissions possibleby developing ‘breakthrough’ technologies.