Presentation on theme: "TOWARDS A CLEANER, GREENER & SMARTER INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY S. Das Gupta ٭ & Bhaskar Roy ٭ ٭ The authors are with M. N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd, Consulting."— Presentation transcript:
TOWARDS A CLEANER, GREENER & SMARTER INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY S. Das Gupta ٭ & Bhaskar Roy ٭ ٭ The authors are with M. N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd, Consulting Engineers, Kolkata Kolkata Presentation made at 4 th India Steel Summit organised by ASSOCHAM in New Delhi on 11 th August 2010.
World India Apparent Steel Consumption – India vs World China 542
5 Likely Future Steel Demand Scenario in India mill. tonsActual consumption mill. tonsConsidering 7.5% CAGR between & mill. tonsConsidering 8% CAGR between & mill. tonsConsidering 10% CAGR between & Indian Steel Industry on a Strong Growth Path
6 Year Population, millPer capita steel, kgTotal steel, mill. tons UrbanRuralUrbanRuralUrbanRuralNational Urban Rural The Rural-Urban SteelDivide in India The Rural-Urban Steel Divide in India Urban Rural Scope for Increasing Rural Steel Consumption !
7 Environmental Aspects of Indian Steel Industry
8 Major Factors in Ensuring Steel Industry Sustainability ٭ : Energy intensity. Energy intensity. Greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions. Material efficiency, i.e. % of by-products re-used. Material efficiency, i.e. % of by-products re-used. ٭ ٭ As defined by World Steel Association member companies.
9 SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS IN INDIAN INTEGRATED STEEL PLANTS Average of Integrated Plants 6.5 Gcal/tcs
10 SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION – INDIA VS OTHER COUNTRIES (2008/2009 figures) Considerable potential to reduce energy intensity in India.
11 Source: Meeting the Challenge of Climate Change by Ian Christmas, Secretary General, World Steel Association, 5 th China International Steel Congress, Shanghai, 2 nd June STEEL INDUSTRY & GHG EMISSIONS
12 CO 2 EMISSION BY STEEL INDUSTRY– INDIA VS OTHER COUNTRIES (2008/2009 figures) India
13 India <80% EXTENT OF BY-PRODUCTS REUSE– INDIA VS OTHER COUNTRIES (2008/2009 figures)
14 Making Indian Steel Industry More Environment Friendly : Domestic steel production bound to grow substantially in future. Inevitable impact on the environment. Indian steel producers seized of the situation - concerted efforts to mitigate harmful effects. However, need for more R&D efforts to develop break-through technologies. Explore possibility of collaborating with agencies involved in R&D activities.
15 International Efforts at Developing New Technologies/Processes: POSCO: substantially reduce CO 2 emissions in years through hydrogen-based steelmaking. ULCOS (Ultra Low CO 2 Steelmaking) program in EU since 2004 to develop breakthrough technologies.
16 CONCEPTUAL SCHEME OF HYDROGEN-BASED STEEL MAKING OF POSCO Iron Ore
17 Salient Features of ULCOS Program: Objective - R&D initiative to reduce CO 2 emissions by developing new breakthrough technologies Consortium of major European steelmakers & Rio Tinto. Involves Carbon Capture & Sequestration (CCS).
18 Salient Features of ULCOS Program contd : Some of the process routes identified: Smelting reduction process – HIsarna; incorporating some features of HIsmelt process. Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace (TGR-BF). Others: Shaft furnace DR process – ULCORED. Electrolysis variants – ULCOWIN & ULCOLYSIS.
19 Smarter Steels
20 Need to develop/produce smart steels with Need to develop/produce smart steels with desired properties to support sectoral growth. desired properties to support sectoral growth. Construction, Automotive & Infrastructure sectors Construction, Automotive & Infrastructure sectors – major drivers of steel demand in India. – major drivers of steel demand in India. Automobiles - Second fastest growing market Automobiles - Second fastest growing market after China. after China. Typical requirements: Typical requirements: For automotive steels - superior formability, For automotive steels - superior formability, without compromising on weldability. without compromising on weldability. For structural applications - high strength, high For structural applications - high strength, high corrosion resistance, better weldability. corrosion resistance, better weldability. Major Demand Drivers for Indian Steel Industry:
21 High-Strength Steels for Automotive Applications: High-strength steels provides better mechanical properties High-strength steels provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. Few grades developed: Few grades developed: Dual phase steel Dual phase steel TRIP steel TRIP steel TWIP steel TWIP steel Evolving AHSS grades: Evolving AHSS grades: Nano steels Nano steels Ultra-fine grain steels Ultra-fine grain steels
22 DP TRIP IF Mild Austenitic-Based Steels, e.g. TWIP MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME HIGH STRENGTH AUTO-GRADE STEELS
23 Development of steel foam: Metal foams with controlled porosity - emerging class of Metal foams with controlled porosity - emerging class of ultra-lightweight materials receiving increased attention. ultra-lightweight materials receiving increased attention. Weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency & increased Weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency & increased passenger safety in transportation systems. passenger safety in transportation systems. Safer vehicles due to crash energy absorption capabilities. Safer vehicles due to crash energy absorption capabilities.
24 Status of Developmental Work in India: Work on TRIP / TWIP & other high strength steels in Work on TRIP / TWIP & other high strength steels in progress. progress. R&D activity on development of steel foam. R&D activity on development of steel foam. Bulk production of high strength steels for automotive Bulk production of high strength steels for automotive application still to take off. application still to take off.
25 Few Action Points for Indian Steel Industry
26 Better Utilisation of Iron Ore Resource: India endowed with large reserves of iron ore – need for a policy for better resource utilisation. Lowering cut-off grade from 55-58% to ~45% & exploration to greater depths for resource estimation. With advances in beneficiation techniques, lower grade in-situ material, reject dumps & slimes can be economically upgraded & gainfully utilised. Lowering environmental degradation – 2.5 mtpy washing plant impacts 5 acres of forest land & about 12,500 trees annually.
27 Better Operating PracticesforReducing Energy Intensity: Better Operating Practices for Reducing Energy Intensity: Higher agglomerates in BF burden lower Si in hot metal for 1 mt hot metal – 7,000 Gcal less energy required for every 0.1% lowering in Si content. Greater application of heat recovery systems – introduction of modern, energy efficient technologies. maximising waste energy recycling, e.g. CDQ, TRT, sinter waste heat recovery, BF stoves waste heat recovery. Wider utilisation of NNS casting beam blank strip casting
28 Utilisation of Iron & Steel Making Slags: At ThyssenKrupp Stahl, BF & SMS slags processed into valuable materials for use in cement making, road construction, or as soil conditioner. ArcelorMittal in Brazil has developed a new way of producing construction bricks from steel mill slag. What Nippon Steel is doing:
29 Green Buildings & Energy Optimisation: Potential for energy savings 40 – 50% in new buildings; for existing buildings, the potential can be 20-25%. Design should ensure building gets maximum day lighting. Use of energy saving materials & equipment like heat resistive paints, fly ash blocks, insulation materials, lighting controls, BIPV (Building Integrated Photo Voltaics), etc. Maximise use of solar power; explore wind energy possibility. Typical Energy Consumption Pattern in Buildings: Source: CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre Misc. Equipment
30 Stricter Monitoring of Air & Water Pollution: Mandatory environmental audit to identify & prioritize areas for short, medium & long term addressal through appropriate mitigation measures. Formation of dedicated & specialised Environment Management Divisions at corporate & plant levels. Stricter enforcement of relevant provisions of Environment (Protection) Acts & Rules, with severe penalties for deliberate non-compliance.
31 Concluding Remarks
32 Enhanced domestic steel production will call for higher demands on various inputs & also entail greater emissions. Indian steel industry required to adhere to commitments made at Kyoto & Copenhagen. Indian steel industry already on high growth path. Industry competitiveness to be ensured by balancing economic & environmental aspects.
33 Indian steel industry seized of the matter & various steps already initiated. However, considerable potential exists to improve sustainability of Indian steel industry. Significant reduction of CO 2 emissions possible by developing breakthrough technologies.