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X10: An Object-Oriented Approach to Non-uniform Cluster Computing Vijay Saraswat IBM Research.

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Presentation on theme: "X10: An Object-Oriented Approach to Non-uniform Cluster Computing Vijay Saraswat IBM Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 X10: An Object-Oriented Approach to Non-uniform Cluster Computing Vijay Saraswat IBM Research

2 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 2 Overview Introduction and context Clustered Computing Language model and constructs Big picture places, atomic, async, finish, clocks, arrays Example programs and demo Conclusion and Future Work Guarantees Challenges

3 July 23, 20033 Acknowledgements X10 Tools Julian Dolby, Steve Fink, Robert Fuhrer, Matthias Hauswirth, Peter Sweeney, Frank Tip, Mandana Vaziri University partners: MIT (StreamIt), Purdue University (X10), UC Berkeley (StreamBit), U. Delaware (Atomic sections), U. Illinois (Fortran plug-in), Vanderbilt University (Productivity metrics), DePaul U (Semantics) X10 core team Philippe Charles Chris Donawa (IBM Toronto) Kemal Ebcioglu Christian Grothoff (Purdue) Allan Kielstra (IBM Toronto) Maged Michael Christoph von Praun Vivek Sarkar Additional contributors to X10 ideas: David Bacon, Bob Blainey, Perry Cheng, Julian Dolby, Guang Gao (U Delaware), Robert O'Callahan, Filip Pizlo (Purdue), Lawrence Rauchwerger (Texas A&M), Mandana Vaziri, Jan Vitek (Purdue), V.T. Rajan, Radha Jagadeesan (DePaul) X10 PM+Tools Team Lead: Kemal Ebcioglu, Vivek Sarkar PERCS Principal Investigator: Mootaz Elnozahy

4 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 4 Performance and Productivity Challenges 1) Memory wall: Architectures exhibit severe non-uniformities in bandwidth & latency in memory hierarchy Clusters (scale-out) SMP Multiple cores on a chip Coprocessors (SPUs) SMTs SIMD ILP... L3 Cache Memory... L2 Cache PEs, L1 $ Proc Cluster PEs, L1 $... L2 Cache PEs, L1 $ Proc Cluster PEs, L1 $... 2) Frequency wall: Architectures introduce hierarchical heterogeneous parallelism to compensate for frequency scaling slowdown 3) Scalability wall: Software will need to deliver ~ 10 5 -way parallelism to utilize peta-scale parallel systems

5 July 23, 20035 High Complexity Limits Development Productivity HPC Software Lifecycle Production Runs of Parallel Code Requirements Input Data Written Specification Algorithm Development Source Code Development of Parallel Source Code --- Design, Code, Test, Port, Scale, Optimize Parallel Specification Maintenance and Porting of Parallel Code L3 Cache Memory... L2 Cache PEs, L1 $ Proc Cluster PEs, L1 $... L2 Cache PEs, L1 $ Proc Cluster PEs, L1 $... One billion transistors in a chip \\ 1995: entire chip can be accessed in 1 cycle 2010: only small fraction of chip can be accessed in 1 cycle Major sources of complexity for application developer: 1) Severe non-uniformities in data accesses 2) Applications must exhibit large degrees of parallelism (up to ~ 10 5 threads) Complexity leads to increases in all phases of HPC Software Lifecycle related to parallel code //

6 July 23, 20036 PERCS Programming Model/Tools: Overall Architecture X10 source code Productivity Metrics X10 Development Toolkit Fortran/MPI/OpenMP) Java Development Toolkit Integrated Programming Environment: Edit, Compile, Debug, Visualize, Refactor Use Eclipse platform ( as foundation for integrating tools Morphogenic Software: separation of concerns, separation of roles C/C++ /MPI /OpenMP C Development Toolkit Java+Threads+Conc utils Fortran Development Toolkit Continuous Program Optimization (CPO) PERCS System Software (K42) PERCS System Hardware... X10 Components X10 runtime Integrated Concurrency Library: messages, synchronization, threads Fortran components C/C++ components Fortran runtime C/C++ runtime Java components Java runtime Performance Exploration PERCS = Productive Easy-to-use Reliable Computer Systems Fast extern interface

7 July 23, 20037 Scalability Axiom: Programmer must have explicit language constructs to deal with non-uniformity of access. Axiom: Allow specification of a large collection of activities. Axiom: A program must use scalable synchronization constructs. Axiom: The runtime may implement aggregate operations more efficiently than user-specified iterations with index variables. Axiom: The user may know more than the compiler/RTS. X10 Design Assumptions Productivity Axiom: OO provides proven baseline productivity, maintenance, portability benefits. Axiom: Design must rule out large classes of errors (Type safe, Memory safe, Pointer safe, Lock safe, Clock safe …) Axiom: Design must support incremental introduction of explicit place types/remote operations. Axiom: PM must integrate with static tools (Eclipse) -- flag performance problems, refactor code, detect races. Axiom: PM must support automatic static and dynamic optimization (CPO). Support High Productivity (&, possibly U ) High Performance Programmer

8 July 23, 20038 The X10 Programming Model A program is a collection of places, each containing resident data and a dynamic collection of activities. Program may distribute aggregate data (arrays) across places during allocation. Program may directly operate only on local data, using atomic blocks. Program may spawn multiple (local or remote) activities in parallel. Program must use asynchronous operations to access/update remote data. Program may detect termination or (repeatedly) detect quiescence of a data- dependent, distributed set of activities. Shared Memory (P=1)MPI (P > 1) Cluster Computing: Common framework for P>=1 heap stack control heap stack control... Activities & Activity-local storage Place-local heap Partitioned Global heap heap stack control heap stack control... Place-local heap Partitioned Global heap Outbound activities Inbound activities Outbound activity replies Inbound activity replies... Place Activities & Activity-local storage Immutable Data Granularity of place can range from single register file to an entire SMP system atomic, when finish, clock async, {at/for}each distribution place Formalized in Saraswat, Jagadeesan Concurrent Clustered Programming.

9 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 9 async async (P) S Parent activity creates a new child activity at place P, to execute statement S; returns immediately. S may reference final variables in enclosing blocks. double A[D]=…; // Global dist. array final int k = …; async ( A.distribution[99] ) { // Executed at A[99]s place atomic A[99] = k; } async PlaceExpressionSingleListopt Statement cf Cilks spawn

10 July 23, 200310 finish finish S Execute S, but wait until all (transitively) spawned asyncs have terminated. Trap all exceptions thrown by spawned activities. Throw an (aggregate) exception if any spawned async terminates abruptly. Useful for expressing synchronous operations on remote data And potentially, ordering information in a weakly consistent memory model finish ateach(point [i]:A) A[i] = i; finish async(A.distribution[j]) A[j] = 2; // All A[i]=i will complete before A[j]=2; Statement ::= finish Statement Rooted Exception Model finish ateach(point [i]:A) A[i] = i; finish async(A.distribution[j]) A[j] = 2; // All A[i]=i will complete before A[j]=2; cf Cilks sync

11 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 11 atomic Atomic blocks are Conceptually executed in a single step, while other activities are suspended An atomic block may not include Blocking operations Accesses to data at remote places Creation of activities at remote places // push data onto concurrent list-stack Node node=new Node (17); atomic { = head; head = node; } // target defined in lexically enclosing environment. public atomic boolean CAS( Object old, Object new) { if (target.equals(old)) { target = new; return true; } return false; } Statement ::= atomic Statement MethodModifier ::= atomic

12 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 12 when Activity suspends until a state in which the guard is true; in that state the body is executed atomically. Statement ::= WhenStatement WhenStatement ::= when ( Expression ) Statement class OneBuffer { nullable Object datum = null; boolean filled = false; public void send(Object v) { when ( !filled ) { this.datum = v; this.filled = true; } public Object receive() { when ( filled ) { Object v = datum; datum = null; filled = false; return v; }

13 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 13 regions, distributions Region a (multi-dimensional) set of indices Distribution A mapping from indices to places High level algebraic operations are provided on regions and distributions region R = 0:100; region R1 = [0:100, 0:200]; region RInner = [1:99, 1:199]; // a local distribution distribution D1=R-> here; // a blocked distribution distribution D = block(R); // union of two distributions distribution D = (0:1) -> P0 || (2:N) -> P1; distribution DBoundary = D – RInner; Based on ZPL.

14 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 14 arrays Array section A [RInner] High level parallel array, reduction and span operators Highly parallel library implementation A-B (array subtraction) A.reduce(intArray.add,0) A.sum() Arrays may be Multidimensional Distributed Value types Initialized in parallel: int [D] A= new int[D] (point [i,j]) {return N*i+j;};

15 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 15 ateach, foreach ateach (point p:A) S Creates |region(A)| async statements Instance p of statement S is executed at the place where A[p] is located foreach (point p:R) S Creates |R| async statements in parallel at current place Termination of all activities can be ensured using finish. ateach ( FormalParam: Expression ) Statement foreach ( FormalParam: Expression ) Statement public boolean run() { distribution D = distribution.factory.block(TABLE_SIZE); long[.] table = new long[D] (point [i]) { return i; } long[.] RanStarts = new long[distribution.factory.unique()] (point [i]) { return starts(i);}; long[.] SmallTable = new long value[TABLE_SIZE] (point [i]) {return i*S_TABLE_INIT;}; finish ateach (point [i] : RanStarts ) { long ran = nextRandom(RanStarts[i]); for (int count: 1:N_UPDATES_PER_PLACE) { int J = f(ran); long K = SmallTable[g(ran)]; async atomic table[J] ^= K; ran = nextRandom(ran); }} return table.sum() == EXPECTED_RESULT; }

16 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 16 clocks Operations clock c = new clock(); c.resume(); Signals completion of work by activity in this clock phase. next; Blocks until all clocks it is registered on can advance. Implicitly resumes all clocks. c.drop(); Unregister activity with c. async (P) clock (c 1,…,c n )S (Clocked async): activity is registered on the clocks (c 1,…,c n ) Static Semantics An activity may operate only on those clocks it is live on. In finish S,S may not contain any top-level clocked asyncs. Dynamic Semantics A clock c can advance only when all its registered activities have executed c.resume(). No explicit operation to register a clock. Supports over-sampling, hierarchical nesting.

17 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 17 Example: SpecJBB finish async { clock c = new clock(); Company company = createCompany(...); for (int w : 0:wh_num) for (int t: 0:term_num) async clocked(c) { // a client initialize; next; //1. while (company.mode!=STOP) { select a transaction; think; process the transaction; if (company.mode==RECORDING) record data; if (company.mode==RAMP_DOWN) { c.resume(); //2. } gather global data; } // a client // master activity next; //1. company.mode = RAMP_UP; sleep rampuptime; company.mode = RECORDING; sleep recordingtime; company.mode = RAMP_DOWN; next; //2. // All clients in RAMP_DOWN company.mode = STOP; } // finish // Simulation completed. print results.

18 July 23, 200318 Formal semantics (FX10) Based on Middleweight Java (MJ) Configuration is a tree of located processes Tree necessary for finish. Clocks formalized using short circuits (PODC 88). Bisimulation semantics. Basic theorems Equational laws Clock quiescence is stable. Monotonicity of places. Deadlock freedom (for language w/out when). … Type Safety … Memory Safety

19 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 19 Current Status We have an operational X10 0.41 implementation All programs shown here run. Analysis passes X10 source AST Parser Code Templates Code emitter Annotated AST X10 Grammar Target Java JVM X10 Multithreaded RTS Native code Program output Structure Translator based on Polyglot (Java compiler framework) X10 extensions are modular. Uses Jikes parser generator. Code metrics Parser: ~45/14K* Translator: ~112/9K RTS: ~190/10K Polyglot base: ~517/80K Approx 180 test cases. (* classes+interfaces/LOC) Limitations Clocked final not yet implemented. Type-checking incomplete. No type inference. Implicit syntax not supported. 09/03 02/04 07/04 02/05 07/05 12/05 06/06 PERCS Kickoff X10 Kickoff X10 0.32 Spec Draft X10 Prototype #1 X10 Productivity Study X10 Prototype #2 Open Source Release? PEM Events

20 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 20 Future Work: Implementation Type checking/inference Clocked types Place-aware types Consistency management Lock assignment for atomic sections Data-race detection Activity aggregation Batch activities into a single thread. Message aggregation Batch small messages. Load-balancing Dynamic, adaptive migration of places from one processor to another. Continuous optimization Efficient implementation of scan/reduce Efficient invocation of components in foreign languages C, Fortran Garbage collection across multiple places Welcome University Partners and other collaborators.

21 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 21 Future work: Other topics Design/Theory Atomic blocks Structural study of concurrency and distribution Clocked types Hierarchical places Weak memory model Persistence/Fault tolerance Database integration Tools Refactoring language. Applications Several HPC programs planned currently. Also: web-based applications. Welcome University Partners and other collaborators.

22 Backup material

23 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 23 Type system Value classes May only have final fields. May only be subclassed by value classes. Instances of value classes can be copied freely between places. nullable is a type constructor nullable T contains the values of T and null. Place types: T@P, specify the place at which the data object lives. Future work: Include generics and dependent types.

24 July 23, 2003 IBM PL Day 2005 24 Example: Latch public class Latch implements future { protected boolean forced = false; protected nullable boxed result = null; protected nullable exception z = null; public atomic boolean setValue( nullable Object val, nullable exception z ) { if ( forced ) return false; // these assignment happens only once. this.result.val= val; this.z = z; this.forced = true; return true; public atomic boolean forced() { return forced; } public Object force() { when ( forced ) { if (z != null) throw z; return result; } public interface future { boolean forced(); Object force(); } public class boxed { nullable Object val; }

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