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1 Processes and Threads Creation and Termination States Usage Implementations.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Processes and Threads Creation and Termination States Usage Implementations."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Processes and Threads Creation and Termination States Usage Implementations

2 2 Processes Program in execution (cf. recipe vs. cooking) Multiprogramming - pseudo-parallelism (vs. true hardware parallelism of multiprocessor systems)

3 3 The Process Model Multiprogramming of four programs Conceptual model of 4 independent, sequential processes Only one program active at any instant

4 4 Process Creation Principal events that cause process creation 1.System initialization (foreground a daemon processes) Execution of a process creation system call (data from network) 1.User request to create a new process 2.Initiation of a batch job UNIX: fork system call (+ execve) Windows: CreateProcess function call

5 5 Process Termination Conditions which terminate processes 1.Normal exit (voluntary) - (exit, ExitProcess) 2.Error exit (voluntary) 3.Fatal error (involuntary), e.g. program bug 4.Killed by another process (involuntary) - kill, TerminateProcess

6 6 Process Hierarchies Parent creates a child process, child processes can create its own process Forms a hierarchy –UNIX calls this a "process group –init Windows has no concept of process hierarchy –all processes are created equal

7 7 Process States (1) Possible process states –running –blocked –ready Transitions between states shown

8 8 Process States (2) Lowest layer of process-structured OS –handles interrupts, scheduling Above that layer are sequential processes

9 9 Implementation of Processes (1) Fields of a process table entry

10 10 Implementation of Processes (2) Skeleton of what lowest level of OS does when an interrupt occurs

11 11 Threads Process = resource grouping (code, data, open files, etc.) + execution (program counter, registers, stack) Multithreading: multiple execution takes place in the same process environment co-operation by sharing resources (address space, open files, etc.)

12 12 The Thread Model (1) (a) Three processes each with one thread (b) One process with three threads

13 13 The Thread Model (2) Items shared by all threads in a process Items private to each thread

14 14 The Thread Model (3) Each thread has its own stack to keep track execution history (called procedures)

15 15 Advantages Pseudo-parallelism with shared address space and data Easier to create and destroy than processes Better performance for I/O bound applications

16 16 Thread Usage (1) A word processor with three threads Writing a book: interactive and background threads sharing the same file

17 17 Thread Usage (2) A multithreaded Web server

18 18 Thread Usage (3) Rough outline of code for previous slide (a) Dispatcher thread (b) Worker thread

19 19 Thread Usage (4) Three ways to construct a server

20 20 Implementing Threads in User Space A user-level threads package

21 21 (Dis)advantages +:no specific OS support needed faster than kernel instructions process-specific scheduling algorithms -:blocking system calls ( select ) page faults

22 22 Implementing Threads in the Kernel A threads package managed by the kernel

23 23 (Dis)advantages +:handling blocking and page faults -:more costly (but recycling threads)

24 24 Hybrid Implementations Multiplexing user-level threads onto kernel- level threads

25 25 Scheduler Activations Goal: – mimic functionality of kernel threads –gain performance of user space threads Avoids unnecessary user/kernel transitions Kernel assigns virtual processors to each process –lets runtime system allocate threads to processors, upcall Problem: Fundamental reliance on kernel (lower layer) calling procedures in user space (higher layer)

26 26 Pop-Up Threads Creation of a new thread when message arrives (a) before message arrives (b) after message arrives (quick)

27 27 Making Single-Threaded Code Multithreaded (1) Conflicts between threads over the use of a global variable

28 28 Making Single-Threaded Code Multithreaded (2) Threads can have private global variables. But non-reentrant library procedures.

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