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1 15 Making the System Operational Lecture 5. 2 15 Activities of the Implementation and Support Phases Figure 15-1.

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Presentation on theme: "1 15 Making the System Operational Lecture 5. 2 15 Activities of the Implementation and Support Phases Figure 15-1."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 15 Making the System Operational Lecture 5

2 2 15 Activities of the Implementation and Support Phases Figure 15-1

3 3 15 Team-Based Program Development u Management Issues l Organization of programming teams l Task assignment to specific teams or members l Member and team communication and coordination u Variety of different models used for organization

4 4 15 Source Code Control u Source code control system (SCCS) l Automated tool for tracking source code files and controlling changes to those files u Repository of code and programmer actions l Check out file in read-only mode l Check out file in read/write mode l Check in a modified file

5 5 15 Versioning u Mechanism to manage systems changes u Complex systems developed, installed, and maintained in series of versions to simplify testing and support l Test Version l Alpha Version l Beta Version l Release Version l Maintenance Release

6 6 15 Quality Assurance u Process of ensuring information system meets minimum quality standards u Identification of gaps or inconsistencies in systems requirements u QA should be integrated into project u Cost of fixing errors rise as project progresses

7 7 15 Technical Reviews u Opens design and construction process to input from other people u Walkthroughs and inspections l Reduce number of errors by factor of 5 to 10 l Reduce testing costs by 50%

8 8 15 Testing u Process of examining a product to determine if any defects exist u Testing takes place following software construction u The process of testing begins early in the SDLC

9 9 15 Correspondence Between SDLC Phases and Types of Testing Figure 15-11

10 10 15 SDLC Phases and Testing Activities Performed Within Each Phase Figure 15-12

11 11 15 Test Cases u Important part of testing is specifying one or more events to which software must respond l Starting state l Events to which software responds l Expected ending state

12 12 15 Unit Testing u Testing individual modules of code before integration with other software u Driver module used for testing l Sets values of input parameters l Calls module to be tested and passes parameters l Accepts return parameters u Stub testing

13 13 15 Integration Testing u Tests the behavior of a group of modules u Errors can include: l Interface incompatibility l Incorrect parameter values l Run-time exceptions l Unexpected state interactions

14 14 15 System Testing u Tests the behavior of the entire system l Build and smoke test is performed daily to discover any problems l Performance test checks time-based requirements l Acceptance test is performed to determine whether system meets user requirements

15 15 Data Conversion u Data needed at startup l Files or DBs of system being replaced l Manual records l Files or DBs of other systems l User feedback during normal system operation u Reuse of existing databases u Reloading database contents u Creating new databases

16 16 15 Two Approaches to Reload DB After a Structural Modification Figure 15-16

17 17 15 Installation u After development and testing, system must be put into operation u Important considerations l Costs of operating both systems in parallel l Detecting and correcting errors in new system l Potentially disrupting the company and IS operations l Training personnel

18 18 15 Direct Installation and Cutover Figure 15-18

19 19 15 Parallel Installation and Operation Figure 15-19

20 20 15 Phased Installation with Direct Cutover and Parallel Operation Figure 15-20

21 21 15 Documentation u Automated documentation is the norm l Electronic manuals l Hyperlinked documents l On-line documentation l Embedded documentation l Electronic system models l Tool-specific system models

22 22 15 System Documentation u Descriptions of system functions, architecture, and construction details, as used by maintenance personnel and future developers l Generated as a byproduct of development l Includes source code l Includes analysis and design models

23 23 15 User Documentation u Descriptions of how to interact with and maintain the system, as used by end users and system operators u Topics include: l Startup and shutdown l Keystrokes, mouse, or command functions to perform specific functions l Specific program functions l Common errors and corrections

24 24 15 Training and User Support u Without training, user error rates will be high u Training considerations l Frequency and duration of use l Need to understand systems business context l Existing computer skills l Number of users u Training and support is ongoing

25 25 15 Maintenance and System Enhancement u Modification of software after delivery to correct faults, improve performance, or adapt the product to a changed environment l Tracking modification requests and changes l Implementing changes l Monitoring system performance l Upgrading hardware/software l Updating documentation

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