Presentation on theme: "Amanda Howard PhD British University in Dubai"— Presentation transcript:
1Amanda Howard PhD British University in Dubai Observation and feedback: are they really necessary for teacher appraisal?Amanda Howard PhDBritish University in DubaiRationale behind research: background, focus
2The assumptions:Teacher appraisal can take a variety of forms, but research suggests that the most frequently used is classroom observation.Observation serves no purpose without some form of feedback.Observation occurs before feedback.Feedback can be written or oral, and may be solely the province of the parent organisation, or shared with the teacher being appraised.
3Participant experiences: Form two groups, the observers and the observed.Summarise your own positive and negative experiences of observation and feedback within the context of teacher appraisal.
4Definitions: Observation Collins English Dictionary: Action or habit of observing; remarkBailey, 2001:1The purposeful examination of teaching and/or learning events through the systematic processes of data collection and analysisFeedbackn. Information received in response to something done
5Summary of Beare’s rationales for teacher assessment (1989:15) Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5ObjectiveTeacher improvementTeacher promotionSchool improvementAccountabilityResearch or professional feedbackSpecific purposeTo improve teaching performanceTo rank and compare teachersTo improve team skillsEfficient and effective use of resourcesTo improve student performance and learningAudienceThe teacherThe employerThe team or managerThe patron or owner of the enterpriseThe professionThe assessorA mentor or professional coachAn external assessorAn agent of the teamAn ‘auditor’A professionally expert analystNature of assess-mentAdvice to the assessedFormal grading: advice to employerA report to the teamA productivity audit, including efficiency measuresA research report, including targeted data and their analysis
6Labov, and the Observer’s Paradox: the aim of linguistic research in the community must be to find out how people talk when they are not being systematically observed; yet we can only obtain this data by systematic observation (1972:209).
7To consider:What potential impact does this have on teacher appraisal?
8Bennet, 1992:39‘Classroom observation for some teachers will undoubtedly be a considerable threat. ….if….the teacher perceives that the purpose of the other’s presence is to judge their effectiveness and provide recommendations for future improvement, this will make an established head of department with 35 years experience much more nervous than a newly qualified teacher who has just spent3 years training with regular visitors to the classroom’‘If the judgement is unsuccessful, how much credibility will be lost amongst the team?’
9Scriven (1981)Using classroom visits by colleagues (or administrators or “experts”) to evaluate teaching is not just incorrect, it’s a disgrace. First, the visit itself alters the teaching, so that the visitor is not looking at a representative sample. This defect is exacerbated by preannouncing the visit. Second, the number of visits is too small to be an accurate sample from which to generalize, even if it were a random sample. Third, the visitors are typically not devoid of independent personal prejudices in favour of or against the teacher ... Fourth, nothing that could be observed in the classroom ... can be used as a basis for an inference to any conclusion about the merit of the teaching (1981:251)
10Analysis of research data In the research, transcripts of observed (model) and non-observed (pedagogic) lessons taught by participant teachers were analysed according to the following features, in order to identify commonalities and differences between the two:
11External features Lesson planning Classroom organisation Interaction patternsStructure and sequencing: beginning, middle and end
12Internal features: Self-Evaluation of Teacher Talk (SETT: Walsh, 2006) Modes which become evident when a transcript of a lesson is analysed:Managerial ModeMaterials Mode (IRF pattern predominates)Skills and Systems ModeClassroom Context Mode
13What the observer sees: What the observer expects to seeWhat the teacher wants them to seeWhat the learners want them to see
14What can be said about teacher observation: It is axiomaticModel lessons are usually a demonstration of a teacher’s best practiceThe low order features have usually been carefully planned in advanceThe teacher may teach this lesson (or a variation thereof) every time they are observedIt is a lesson that has been developed with that particular supervisor in mind (Howard, 2008)The observer is only able to record judgements relating to what s/he actually seesIt is ‘going through the motions’ (Scrivener, IATEFL Conference, 2012)
15What can be said about post-observation feedback: It relates to the lesson the observer has just seen, and links to her/his preferred teaching methodologiesIt usually contains positive and negative elementsTeachers tend to ignore positive feedback and focus on the ‘but’...Feedback is only constructive if it relates directly to teacher professional development (PD)
16Implications:Bearing in mind the Observer's Paradox (Labov, 1972), can any classroom observation be said to be a real representation of a typical lesson in that context? And, having said this, how valid is the feedback?So, depending on context, observation and feedback may not be necessary for teacher appraisal.BUT what are the alternatives?
17Some possibilities: Student evaluations Teacher portfolios (covering PD)Student summariesEvaluation of the learnersPeer evaluationSelf-evaluation3 minute walk-throughs…
18ReferencesBailey, K.M. (2001) Observation. In: Carter, R. and Nunan, D. eds. The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:Beare, H. (1989) The Australian Policy Context. In: Lokan, J. and McKenzie, P. eds.. Teacher Appraisal: Issues and Approaches. Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research: v-viiiBennet, H. (1992) Teacher appraisal; survival and beyond. Harlow: LongmanHoward, A. (2008) Teachers being observed: coming to terms with classroom appraisal. In: Garton, S and Richards, K. eds. Professional Encounters in TESOL. London: Palgrave:Labov, W. (1974) Sociolinguistic Patterns. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania PressScriven, M Summative Teacher Evaluation. In: Millman, J. ed. Handbook of Teaching Evaluation. London: Sage:Walsh, S. (2006) Investigating Classroom Discourse. London: RoutledgeWang, W. and Day, C. (2002) Issues and Concerns about Classroom Observation: Teachers’ Perspectives. Paper presented at TESOL, Conference in St Louis, USA, 27th March 2001Wragg, E.C. (1987) Teacher appraisal: a practical guide. London: Macmillan