2Autotrophs & Heterotrophs An organism that makes its own food is called an autotroph.An organism that cannot make its own food is called a heterotroph.Nearly all living things get their energy directly or indirectly from photosynthesis.
3PhotosynthesisThe process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food.The raw ingredients that go into the plant cells are water and carbon dioxideThe sunlight energy chemically changes the ingredients into food (glucose)CO2
4Photosynthesis Water is absorbed by the roots. Carbon dioxide gas is taken from the airGlucose is stored and used by the plantOxygen is released into the air
5The chemical formula for photosynthesis looks like this: Energy6H2O + 6CO2(Sunlight)C6H12O6 + 6O2(water)(carbon dioxide)(glucose)(oxygen)O2CO2
6Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells. Chlorophyll is the energy absorbing green pigment found in chloroplasts.
7Gas ExchangeGasses (CO2 & O2) go in and out of leaves through little holes called stomata.Sometimes water vapor escapes the stomata through a process called transpiration.Where is CO2 found in abundance?
8Guard cells control when the stomata open and close.
9Since leaves can lose water through stomata, on what part of the leaves do you think stomata can be found?Make a prediction.
10Stomata are mostly found on the underside of leaves Stomata are mostly found on the underside of leaves. This helps the plant lose less water.
11Cellular RespirationThe process by which cells obtain energy from glucose.Respiration means “breathing”This chemical reaction takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria
12Cellular RespirationGlucose chemically reacts with Oxygen to form the energy molecule ATPATP (energy)C6H12O6 (glucose)H2O (water)O2 (oxygen)CO2(Carbon dioxide)
13The chemical formula for cellular respiration looks like this: + 6H2O + 6CO2EnergyC6H12O6 + 6O2(ATP)(water)(carbondioxide)(glucose)(oxygen)Does this look familiar?6H2O + 6CO2+ EnergyC6H12O6 + 6O2(water)(carbon dioxide)(Sunlight)(glucose)(oxygen)
14The Cycle of Cellular Energy in Plants • The products made by the chloroplasts are used by the mitochondria.• The products made by the chloroplasts are used by the chloroplast.Why don’t animal cells have this cycle?
15Fermentation provides energy for cells without using oxygen. Deep water organismsYeast (alcohol is byproduct)Muscle Cells (lactic acid is a byproduct = sore muscles)