Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Cell Processes"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9: Cell Processes Table of ContentsChapter 9: Cell ProcessesSection 1: Chemistry of LifeSection 2: Moving Cellular MaterialsSection 3: Energy for Life
2 A. Trapping and Using Energy Energy for Life3A. Trapping and Using EnergyAll of the activities of an organism involve chemical reactions in some way.The total of all chemical reactions in an organism is called metabolism.The chemical reactions of metabolism need enzymes.Enzymes in cells cause a change, but the enzyme is not changed and can be used again.
3 A. Trapping and Using Energy Energy for Life3A. Trapping and Using Energy5. Enzymes also can cause molecules to join.6. Without the right enzyme, a chemical reaction in a cell cannot take place.7. Each chemical reaction in a cell requires a specific enzyme.Click image to view movie.
4 Energy for Life3B. PhotosynthesisLiving things are divided into two groups— producers and consumers—based on how they obtain their food.Organisms that make their own food, such as plants, are called producers.Organisms that cannot make their own food are called consumers.
5 Energy for Life3B. Photosynthesis4. Plants and many other producers can convert light energy into another kind of energy—chemical energy.5. The process they use is called photosynthesis.6. During photosynthesis, producers use light energy to make sugars, which can be used as food.
6 C. Producing Carbohydrates Energy for Life3C. Producing CarbohydratesProducers that use photosynthesis are usually green because they contain a green pigment called chlorophyll (KLOR uh fihl).Chlorophyll and other pigments are used in photosynthesis to capture light energy.In plant cells, these pigments are found in chloroplasts.
7 C. Producing Carbohydrates Energy for Life3C. Producing Carbohydrates4. The captured light energy is used to drive chemical reactions during which the raw materials, carbon dioxide and water, are used to produce sugar and oxygen.5. For plants, the raw materials come from air and soil.
8 C. Producing Carbohydrates Energy for Life3C. Producing Carbohydrates6. Some of the captured light energy is stored in the chemical bonds that hold sugar molecules together.
9 D. Storing Carbohydrates Energy for Life3D. Storing CarbohydratesPlants make more sugar during photosynthesis than they need for survival.Excess sugar is changed and stored as starches or used to make other carbohydrates.Plants use carbohydrates as food for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.Consumers take in food by eating producers or other consumers.
10 Energy for Life3E. Respiration1. Some of the energy from the food you eat is used to make you move.2. Some of it becomes thermal energy, which is why you feel warm or hot when you exercise.3. Most cells also need oxygen to break down food.
11 Energy for Life3E. Respiration4. During respiration, chemical reactions occur that break down food molecules into simpler substances and release their stored energy.5. Just as in photosynthesis, enzymes are needed for the chemical reactions of respiration.
12 F. Breaking Down Carbohydrates Energy for Life3F. Breaking Down CarbohydratesThe type of food molecules most easily broken down by cells is carbohydrates.Respiration of carbohydrates begins in the cytoplasm of the cell.The carbohydrates are broken down into glucose molecules.Each glucose molecule is broken down further into two simpler molecules.
13 F. Breaking Down Carbohydrates Energy for Life3F. Breaking Down Carbohydrates5. As the glucose molecules are broken down, energy is released.6. The two simpler molecules are broken down again. This breakdown occurs in the mitochondria of the cells of plants, animals, fungi, and many other organisms.7. This process uses oxygen, releases much more energy, and produces carbon dioxide and water as wastes.
14 F. Breaking Down Carbohydrates Energy for Life3F. Breaking Down Carbohydrates8. When you exhale you breathe out carbon dioxide and some of the water.9. Respiration occurs in the cells of all living things.
15 Energy for Life3G. FermentationWhen cells do not have enough oxygen for respiration, they use a process called fermentation to release some of the energy stored in glucose molecules.Like respiration, fermentation begins in the cytoplasm.
16 Energy for Life3G. Fermentation3. Again, as the glucose molecules are broken down, energy is released.4. But the simple molecules from the breakdown of glucose do not move into the mitochondria.5. Instead, more chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm.
17 Energy for Life3G. Fermentation6. These reactions release some energy and produce wastes.7. Depending on the type of cell, the wastes may be lactic acid, alcohol, and carbon dioxide.8. The presence of lactic acid is why your muscle cells might feel stiff and sore after you exercise.
18 Energy for Life3H. Related ProcessesDuring photosynthesis and respiration, what is produced in one is used in the other.Photosynthesis produces sugars and oxygen, and respiration uses these products.
19 Section Check3Question 1_______ is the total of all chemical reactions in an organism.AnswerThe answer is metabolism. All of the activities of an organism involve chemical reactions in some way.
20 Question 2 3 Which does this equation represent? A. respiration Section Check3Question 2Which does this equation represent?A. respirationB. fermentationC. photosynthesisD. chemosynthesis
21 Section Check3AnswerThe answer is C. During photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide and water and combine it with light energy to make sugars, which they use for food.
22 Section Check3Question 3_______ is the type of food molecules most easily broken down by cells.AnswerThe answer is carbohydrates. As carbohydrates are broken down, energy is released.
23 HelpTo advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow.Click on this icon to return to the table of contentsClick on this icon to return to the previous slideClick on this icon to move to the next slideClick on this icon to open the resources file.Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.