4 Cell in ActionPassive transport- the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration- no energyActive transport- the movement of particles through proteins in the cell membrane against the direction of diffusion---requires cells to use energy(active transport)
6 Cell in ActionEndocytosis -the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cellExocytosis- the process used to remove large particles from a cella vesicle containing the particles fuses with the cell
8 Cell EnergyPhotosynthesis- the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugarCellular respiration- the process of producing ATP from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide as a waste product
11 6CO2 + 6H2O ---------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Sunlight energy Photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation.The overall balanced equation is...6CO2 + 6H2O > C6H12O6 + 6O2 Sunlight energyWhere: CO2 = carbon dioxide H2O = water Light energy is required C6H12O6 = glucose O2 = oxygenLearn these formulas
12 Photosynthesis: transforms light energy to chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar-occurs in chloroplasto Uses carbon dioxide and watero Produces oxygen and glucoseo Opposite of cellular respirationoccurs in mitochondria
20 Fermentation Fermentation is "the process of energy production in a cell under anaerobic conditions." Anaerobic is when a biological reaction or process can take place with the absence of oxygen.
21 2 types of fermentation1- Your muscles need energy faster than your body can provide oxygen to your cells to produce ATP by cellular respiration---Fermentation produces lactic acid--- muscle fatigue2- fermentation that occurs in some bacteria and fungiEx. Yeast can make carbon dioxide and alcohol during fermentation of sugar.
22 Cell Cycle The life cycle of the cell In eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus) it consists of 3 parts1-Interphase: cell growth and chromosome duplication2- Mitosis (PMAT)3- Cytokinesis
25 ChromosomeCoiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell divisionHumans have 46 chromosomes
26 Binary FissionThe simple cell division in which one cell splits into twoUsed by bacteria
27 Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes with matching or similar informationHumans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomesPotatoes have 24 pairs of homologous chromosomesAn organism’s number of chromosomes has nothing to do with its complexity
28 Chromatids Identical copies of a chromosome After each chromosome is duplicated(copied)- the 2 copies are called CHROMATIDS
29 CentromereThe region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated(copied)
30 MitosisNuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomesMitosis makes sure each new cell receives a copy of each chromosomeConsists of 4 phases- PMATProphase, Metaphase,Anaphase and TelophaseSecond stage of cell cycle
31 Cytokinesis The process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis Animal cells-The cell membrane pinches in to form a groove—eventually pinching ALL the way through the cell2 daughter cells formed***Plant cells: Have a cell wall- these cells must first form a cell plate –in the middle of the cell-this becomes the cell membrane- then new cell wall formed