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Chapter 3 Bell work! 1.Staple your study guide into your notebook 2. Copy down the content and language objectives 3.Leave space to answer the objectives.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Bell work! 1.Staple your study guide into your notebook 2. Copy down the content and language objectives 3.Leave space to answer the objectives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Bell work! 1.Staple your study guide into your notebook 2. Copy down the content and language objectives 3.Leave space to answer the objectives 4. Circle words in the objectives that you will need to learn to be able to answer the objectives Objectives Content Explain four ways cells exchange materials with their environments. Diffusion, Osmosis, Endocytosis, Exocytosis Language Compare and contrast Diffusion with Osmosis, and Endocytosis with Exocytosis Section 1 Exchange with the Environment

2 Chapter 3 What Is Diffusion? Diffusion is the movement of particles from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower consecration. Osmosis The diffusion of water through cell membranes Section 1 Exchange with the Environment

3 Chapter 3 Diffusion allows materials to move in and out of the cell naturally. Osmosis is a specific type of diffusion. Water is the molecule moving Must travel over a membrane Cells are made mostly of fluid that are water based Section 1 Exchange with the Environment

4 Chapter 3 Outside Activity

5 Chapter 3 Moving Small Particles Passive Transport The movement of particles across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell is called passive transport. Active Transport A process of transporting particles that requires the cell to use energy is called active transport. Section 1 Exchange with the Environment

6 Chapter 3 Section 1 Exchange with the Environment

7 Chapter 3 Moving Large Particles Endocytosis The active-transport process by which a cell surrounds a large particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell is called endocytosis. Exocytosis The process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane is called exocytosis. Section 1 Exchange with the Environment

8 Chapter 3 Section 1 Exchange with the Environment

9 Chapter 3 The Life of a Cell The cell cycle begins when the cell is formed and ends when the cell divides and forms new cells. Before a cell divides, it must make a copy of its DNA which is organized into structures called chromosomes. Section 3 The Cell Cycle

10 Chapter 3 The Life of a Cell, continued Making More Prokaryotic Cells Cell division in bacteria is called binary fission, which means “splitting into two parts.” Bacteria have a single circular DNA molecule (chromosome). Binary fission results in two cells that each contain one copy of the circle of DNA. Section 3 The Cell Cycle

11 Chapter 3 The Life of a Cell, continued Eukaryotic Cells and Their DNA The chromosomes of eukaryotic cells contain more DNA than those of prokaryotic cells. In a eukaryotic cell, chromosomes are found in the nucleus and are made of DNA and protein. Pairs of similar chromosomes are called homologous chromosomes. Section 3 The Cell Cycle

12 Chapter 3 The Life of a Cell, continued Making More Eukaryotic Cells The cell cycle has three stages: 1. Interphase: The cell grows and copies its chromosomes. The two copies are now called chromatids. 2. Mitosis: The chromatids separate. 3. Cytokinesis: The cell splits into two identical cells. Section 3 The Cell Cycle

13 Chapter 3 Mitosis and the Cell Cycle Mitosis has four phases: 1.prophase 2.metaphase 3.anaphase 4.telophase Section 3 The Cell Cycle Cell Cycle: Interphase  Mitosis  Cytokinesis

14 Chapter 3 Mitosis and the Cell Cycle, continued Cytokinesis is the division of cytoplasm. In animal cells and other eukaryotes that do not have cell walls, division of the cytoplasm begins at the cell membrane. In plant cells and in other eukaryotes with cell walls, a cell plate forms and the cell splits into two cells. Section 3 The Cell Cycle

15 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Cell Cycle

16 Chapter 3 From Sun to Cell Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food. Chloroplast Plant cells have organelles that absorb light energy. pigments. Chlorophyll, the main pigment used in photosynthesis, gives plants their green color. Section 2 Cell Energy

17 Chapter 3 Section 2 Cell Energy

18 Chapter 3 Getting Energy from Food Cellular Respiration During cellular respiration, food (such as glucose) is broken down into carbon dioxide and water, and energy is released. Section 2 Cell Energy

19 Chapter 3 Getting Energy from Food, continued Connection Between Photosynthesis and Respiration During photosynthesis, cells take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. During cellular respiration, cells use oxygen to break down glucose and release energy and carbon dioxide. Fermentation When muscles can’t get the oxygen for cellular respiration, they use fermentation to get energy. Fermentation is the breakdown of food without the use of oxygen. Section 2 Cell Energy

20 Chapter 3


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