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New Technologies Facilitated Long-Distance Communication & Exchange

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Presentation on theme: "New Technologies Facilitated Long-Distance Communication & Exchange"— Presentation transcript:

1 New Technologies Facilitated Long-Distance Communication & Exchange
By: Leilani Smith, CraiSean George, Peyton Ellen, & Linda Villarruel Period 6

2 Sea Connections Likely to have existed between coastal communities in the Aegean Sea Provided links between Greece and the Near East Links between Greece were mainly to Anatolia

3 Further Development in Transportation
On both water and land facilitated the consolidation by the established of long- distance trade network The constantly changing environment triggered the steady development in tool technology

4 Periods Which Trade Evolved
Mesolithic Neolithic Bronze Iron Roman

5 Mesolithic An important transitional period in Europe
During this period, hunters and gatherers communities underwent significant changes in technology economy and social organization

6 Bronze Age Archaeological records show the presence of long-distance trade routes Linked north to south and east to west

7 The Amber Routes The longest and oldest long- distance trade routes
Located in the Baltic and Mediterranean regions

8 Domesticated Animals New technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes The first pack animal that was domesticated in the Eastern Hemisphere was the donkey in Africa in 3500 B.C.E. Horses were the official pack animal

9 Animal Transportation
By the 4th Millennium, domesticated animals were used for transport Farmers used cattle for localized transportation Pastoralists used sheep and goats for transportation

10 Camel Saddles in the Eastern Hemisphere
New technologies like saddles permitted the use of domesticated pack animals like camels Camels were domesticated and used for travel and exchange across long distances The camel was a domesticated pack animal in the eastern hemisphere

11 Camels The camel was domesticated shortly before 1000 B.C.E.
Pack animal used by the Assyrian military Superior to previous pack animals because it could carry 5 times the load of a donkey Required less watering Used for longer distances Camel back transportation was more economical and more efficient than cart transportation

12 The Saddle Itself Saddles were a form of a new technology that helped with travel on pack animals such as horses, llamas, camels, and sometimes oxen The first saddles, which appeared more than 4,000 years ago, were just a patch of animal hide or a piece of cloth These early models offered little in the way of support or security, but they served as a buffer between horse and rider during bareback migrations and battles

13 Camel Saddles Use (Silk Road): Overland from western China to the Mediterranean Trade made possible by development of a camel hybrid capable of long dry trips (Saharan Trade): Points in western Africa south of the Sahara to the Mediterranean; Cairo was the most important destination Camel caravans

14 Lateen Sails •a triangle shaped sail attached the fore and aft, and is very tall and high peaked OR •a square sail

15 Theories on How Lanteen Sails Developed
1. Developed in the Mediterranean and spread forward the Indian Ocean 2. Developed in the Indian Ocean and spread forward the Mediterranean 3. Developed on the Red Sea

16 Stages of Development 1. The Square Sail- almost universally in the ancient world; only during the early Byzantine period in the Eastern Mediterranean. Though stable on heavy seas, it is not very versatile to make much use of and headwinds. 2. The Lug Sail- was one of the many efforts to make the square sail better for sailing close to the wind. 3. The Arab Lateen or Settee Sail- very effective fore-and-aft rig. Developed in Arab waters well before the coming of Islam, may have been the type of sailing ship that the Nabataeans would have used to sail on the difficult waters of the Red Sea. 4. Fully Developed Lateen- Final step made in the Mediterranean before 900 AD, turning the Arab sail triangular. Used for small boats for years.

17 Lanteen Sail Contributed in the Indian Ocean Trade
•Permitted sailing for from coast. Created a trading class with mixture of cultures, ties to homeland broken •Arabs developed the first triangular sails in 200 BCE •Greeks were using the Dhow and triangular sails on the Aegean Sea by the end of the 2nd Century BCE •In the 3rd Century CE, the Dhow and Lateen Sails dominated sea trade from the Mediterranean to East Africa and the Indian Ocean

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