Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 7 Networks of Communication And Exchange, 300 B.C.E. - 1100 C.E."— Presentation transcript:
World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 7 Networks of Communication And Exchange, 300 B.C.E C.E.
Objectives Identify the locations and describe the participants of the Silk Road, the Indian Ocean, and the trans-Saharan trade routes.. Define the term “Africanity” and explain the development of “Africanity” in terms of Bantu migrations.. Analyze the relationship between environment, transportation technology,and trade along the Silk Road, Indian Ocean, and trans-Saharan trade routes.. Discuss the causes and patterns of the spread of Buddhism and Christianity..
Silk Road Map
Overview Remember to give Students their quizzes Back Trade Routes agricultural goods manufactured goods ideas social system Did more for cultural inclusion than any emperor or king.
The Silk Road Silk Road –connects Middle East to China –1st Period: 150 BCE CE –2nd Period: 13th-17th cen. CE Origins –nomadic traders –Chinese demand for western products –Mesopotamian markets Parthians hybrid camels –existed solely for trade route
The Silk Road Zhang Jian –Ferghana horses –alfalfa and domestic grapes Chinese Exports –silk, pottery, paper Impact of Trade –settling of Iranian nomads –import of Turkic peoples yurts –interest in foreign religions –military chariot, bowmen stirrup Prosperity from trade = peace
Silk Road Map
The Indian Ocean Indian Ocean Maritime System –Indian Ocean / South China Sea –multilingual / multiethnic seafarers –E. Africa, Arabia, India, China, and SE Asia monsoons –lateen sails; long reaches –sail further from shore colonies –economic, not political –warfare rare
The Indian Ocean Origins of Contact and Trade Africa –SE Asian settling of Madagascar 2000 years ago cultures of homeland –Mozambique Channel 1500 years ago Impact –The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea - 7th century CE extensive written record of trade ports of call from E to W –bilingual and bicultural families cosmopolitan in nature
Routes Across the Sahara Sahara –2500 BCE BCE shift in cultural patterns south –Mediterranean - S. Africa barrier –source of European exploration trans-Saharan caravan routes Culture –cave paintings cliffs and caves –southern animals hunters, cattle breeders, horse herders, camel riders Trans Saharan Trade Routes –camel domestication
Camel Domestication Camels in Africa –1st century BCE –to Egypt from Arabia; S to N saddle purposes Trade –South salt for forest products Sahel - ‘coast’ –Saharan southern border –North food for Roman Empire –Roman N. African farms wild animals for Coliseum post-Roman shift to Middle East Berber: trade for gold dust
Sub-Saharan Africa Ghana CE –“land of gold” –1st documentable W. Africa –African with Muslim traders religious toleration Sub-Saharan Africa –most important cultural exchange –geographical obstacles
Sub-Saharan Africa Geography –Sahara, Atlantic, Indian, Red Sea –limited navigation of rivers steppes –treeless plains; coarse grass savanna –long grasses; scattered forests tropical rain forest Cultural traditions as a result of long period of isolation
Sub-Saharan Culture Cultural Unity... –“great traditions” written language, legal system, ethical codes, intellectual traditions –“small traditions” local customs and beliefs less-population density distance between tribes lack of accessibility to interior –Common Elements concept of kingship - isolation fixed social categories common agricultural cultivation common music rituals … emanates from Sub-Sahara
Bantu Migrations “Africanity” –common African quality Bantu –family of 300 sub-Saharan languages –proto-Bantu as fishermen and agriculturalists –iron-smelting language distribution spread of agriculture use of iron tools
The Spread of Ideas Where do ideas and beliefs start? –Iron-smelting and pork Religion –royal sponsorship –monks, missionaries, and pilgrims Silk Road and Indian Ocean –Buddhism Ethiopian Christianity –Constantine’s missionaries –Patriarch of Alexandria –writing system Armenian Christianity