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7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language

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1 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language
Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language

2 Memory Memory - the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. Examples: Sensory Memory Long-term memory Short-term Working memory Implicit/Procedural Memory Explicit memory Episodic memory Semantic memory Flashbulb memory Mood Congruent memory Context Dependent Memory Prospective Memory

3 The Memory Process Basic three step process….
Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. Getting the info into the brain Example: Getting the names of the 7 dwarfs into your brain Storage: The retention of encoded material over time. Retaining the info Example: Rehearsing the names of the dwarfs so that they are stored in memory Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage. Getting the info back out Example: Recalling or Recognizing the names of the dwarfs to get them back out of storage

4 3 Memory Models Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 stage model
Modified Atkinson-Shiffrin Connectivism Model

5 Atkinson and Shiffrin’s 3 Step Model of Memory
Sensory memory – brief recording of sensory information Example: the sea of faces as you walk down the hallway Short-term memory – memory that holds few items briefly before info is forgotten unless consciously activated Example – a new phone number is remembered only long enough to dial it Long –term memory – relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory. Examples: Knowledge, skills, experiences (flashbulb)

6 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory - A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information Examples:. Iconic Memory – momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli Echoic Memory – momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

7 Short Term Memory Short –term memory consciously activated
limited capacity – Holds items for about 30 seconds without rehearsal holds a few items briefly (7 digits +/-2) until it is forgotten or stored Encoded visually, acoustically or semantically through rehearsal. Short Term Memory Activity

8 Long Term Memory Long-term memory - Unlimited storehouse of knowledge, skills and experiences. Unlimited capacity Relatively permanent Organized and indexed Examples: Explicit (declarative) memories – (Facts) Implicit (non-declarative) memories (remembering how to do a task)

9 Modified Atkinson – Shiffrin modified (3 Stage) Model
2 New concepts Working Memory – active processing that combines novel (?) or important info along with info retrieved from long term memory Instead of short-term memory being just a 20 sec. holding tank, this model includes the ability to briefly process info Some info skips the 1st two stages in Atkinson’s/Shiffrins and is processed automatically into long-term memory Example – Daydreaming in class

10 Modified Three-stage Model of Memory

11 Connectionism Model of Memory
Connectionism – theory that states that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons Many neurons may work together to process a single memory memory emerges from particular activation patterns within the network retrieval of the memory is a reconstruction based on each of the elements of the pattern

12 On a piece of paper: Name the 3 memory models discussed today
On a piece of paper: Name the 3 memory models discussed today. Which do you think is most useful in explaining memory? Why? Did you encode the info? Is it in storage, if not why not? Are you able to retrieve it?

13 Name the 3 memory models we discussed yesterday
Pick 3 of the following terms and give an personal example of YOU using them: Encoding Storage Retrieval Sensory Memory Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Working Memory Connectionism Name the 3 memory models we discussed yesterday

14 How We Encode 2 Ways of Encoding Automatically Processing
Parallel Effortful processing Rehearsal

15 Encoding - Automatic Processing
Automatic Processing - unconscious encoding of incidental information Examples: Unintentionally encoding…and later remembering Time – day’s sequence of events, and remembering later you left your AP note cards on the lunch table space – place on a page in your AP textbook where the term automatic processing occurs.. Frequency – number of times you saw your Mr. Gielink in the hall well learned info – understand every word in your AP Textbook Unique or engaging info – “pop out” effect; things that stand out

16 Automatic Processing Parallel Processing – processing of many things simultaneously Allows many sensory experiences to be encoded all at once, some automatically, some with effort Example: process a red car coming straight at you, you know to get out of the way!

17 Spring is the the most beautiful time of the year
Automatic Processing Spring is the the most beautiful time of the year

18 Encoding – Effortful Processing
Effortful Processing –encoding that requires conscious effort and attention Example: Studying for your unit test on memory Rehearsal – conscious repetition of info to encode it for storage Example: Reviewing your AP note cards every night

19 Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve
Ebbinghaus Curve - The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning Used nonsense syllabus to study memory JIH, BAZ, FUB, YOX SUJ, XIR The more time you rehearse on day 1, the less time it takes to relearn the info on day 2 Overlearning – additional rehearsal after we learn material increases retention

20 Effortful Processing Spacing effect – distributed study is better for long-term recall than massed study (cramming) DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!! Example: Start studying now for your midterm—1/2 once per week! Testing effect – repeated quizzing or testing improves retention Example: giving comprehensive quizzes every month, or even better, quizzing yourself repeatedly

21 Encoding Information Serial Positioning Effect – we tend to remember the first and last items on a list Primacy Effect – remember items at the beginning of a list Example: Washington, Adams.. Recency Effect – remembering items at the end of a list (most recent Example: Obama, Bush… Rostorff effect – remembering unique items on a list Example: Lincoln, Kennedy

22 What We Encode… Encoding Exercise Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture/visual images. Example – appearance of letters – are they in ALL CAPS, Bolded, In Red 2. Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. Example: “If the glove doesn’t fit you must acquit” 3. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning. Example: “rambutan” may not mean anything to you – but if you put a meaning to it (a tropical fruit which means “hair” in Malaysian, similar to its physical qualities), you might remember it Serial Positioning Effects demonstrates the importance of rehearsal.

23 Visual Encoding Encoding Exercise Imagery – visual images help us remember concrete words (aided by semantic encoding) Example: Ipod, process, college, claim Rosy Retrospection – recalling high points, forgetting the worst Example: After a trip to Disney World, you remember meeting Mickey, Space Mountain, the turkey leg you ate, but forget the long lines, and the heat

24 Mneumonics Encoding Exercise Mnemonic Devices – any memory aid that uses visual images and clever ways of organizing material EXAMPLES: Peg word system – memorizing a jingle and using imagery to associate items with the jingle One is a bun (chicken squashing the bun), two is a shoe (corn filling up shoe)… Method of Loci – use visual information with familiar objects on a path to recall info on a list Example: remembering items on a grocery list by associating them with a place in our house (chicken is pecking at front door, corn is smashed in the foyer etc)

25 Mneumonics Encoding Exercise 3. Hierarchies – broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts Example: See picture 4. Chunking - Organizing items into familiar, manageable units (acronyms) Example: PORN – Proactive Interference: Old info interferes with New Retroactive Interference: New interferes with Old Every Good Boy Does Fine 1-800-IBM-HELP

26 Acoustic Encoding Acoustic Encoding Example:
The melody of your favorite song has been encoded into long-term memory

27 Semantic Encoding Semantic Encoding Examples:
Children in Israel, can sing the top rock songs from the United States but they don’t know what the words mean. This is because they are using an acoustic code to remember a song and sing it, but they do not have a semantic code for the meaning of the words. Self Reference Effect – the tendency to remember information that is “relevant to me” compared to less personally relevant information Example: I remember the meaning of rambutan because I was in Malaysia and ate them…yum!

28 Comparing Types of Encoding
You’re given the word EXTROVERTED, which of the following is an example of Visual, Acoustic, Semantic Encoding? The word consists of 10 letters The word rhymes with perverted The word written in capitals The word describes you well Which would you remember better? Comparing Types of Encoding

29 Storage Types of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory/Short-term
Iconic Echoic Working Memory/Short-term Long-Term Memory Implicit Memory/Procedural Memory Conditioned Memories Explicit Memory Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Flashbulb Memories Prospective memory

30 Sensory Memory Sperling’s memory experiment
Momentary photographic memory After flashing an image, participants had a momentary mental image of all 9 letters Iconic memory – photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second A momentary mental image that remains after the image is gone Example: A momentary mental image that remains after seeing a phone number flashed on the TV The afterimage of Twirling a sparkler

31 Sensory Memory Echoic memory – auditory memory lasting no more than a 3-4 seconds (mind’s echo chamber) A momentary auditory impression that remains after the sound is gone Example: a moment after hearing your teacher say something when you weren’t paying, you are able to answer the question “What did I just say?”

32 Working/Short-Term Memory
Duration – Brief (30 sec or less) without active processing Slightly better for auditory info than visual info Numbers better than letters Capacity - Limited Magic number Seven 5-9 bits of information, ave. = 7 The list of magic sevens Seven wonders of world Seven seas Seven deadly sins Seven primary colors Seven musical scale notes Seven days of the week

33 Types of Long Term Memory
Implicit Memory/Procedural Memory Conditioned Memories Explicit Memory Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Flashbulb Memory Prospective Memory

34 Types of Long-Term Memory

35 Implicit Memories Implicit/Procedural Memories – without conscious recall Processed by cerebellum and other brain areas still intact with anterograde amnesia Examples: Bike Riding, Playing an instrument Conditioned Memories – memories from conditioned learning Example: Fear

36 Explicit Memories Explicit Memories – memories of facts and experiences, consciously recalled Processed by the Hippocampus Verbal information is stored in the left hippocampus visual designs are stored in the right hippocampus. Infantile amnesia – can’t remember events before age 3 Hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to develop Example: Remembering the first President of the U.S.

37 Explicit Memories Episodic Memories - memories of autobiographical events, situations, and experiences Example: Remembering you 5th Birthday Party Semantic Memories – memory of words, meanings, and understandings Example: Remembering the meaning of vocab from AP Psych

38 Explicit Memories Flashbulb Memories – clear moment of a emotionally significant event Facilitated by stress hormones Prolonged stress however, can inhibit memory formation by shrinking the hippocampus Amygdala (emotion center of the brain) boosts activity & proteins into memory forming areas of the brain Example: 9/11 Prospective Memory – remembering to perform a planned action Example: Remembering to meet your study group for the AP Psych Exam

39 Review Come up with your own example of three of following terms:
Iconic Memory Echoic Memory Implicit Memory Explicit Memory Episodic Semantic Flashbulb Prospective

40 Storing Memories Memory trace – memory is distributed across groups of neurons Long Term-Potentiation – Increases in synaptic firing potential of a neuron by increasing the number of receptors on the receiving neuron. physical basis for learning and memory . Neurons that fire together wire together…creating a memory. Example: Rats given drug that enhances LTP learn a maze with about ½ the normal mistakes Memory boosting drugs CREB – proteins that make a cell more likely to keep a memory Glutamate – enhances synaptic communication (LTP) which strengthens neural connections

41 Amnesia Amnesia – loss of memory
Retrograde Amnesia – inability to remember past events Example Stroke, accident “The Vow” Anterograde Amnesia – inability to create new memories Loss of Explicit Memory but not Implicit memories Examples: Clive wearing HM (Henry Moliason) 50 1st dates

42 Think Pair Share Explain where explicit and implicit memories are stored in the brain, and the possible implications of these locations for amnesia victims.

43 Retrieval Recall - you must retrieve the information from your memory
Example: fill-in-the blank or essay tests Recognition - you must identify the target from possible targets Example: multiple-choice tests

44 Ways to help you retrieve info
Relearning – learning material for the second time, saves time. Example: Taking Psych in college should save you time for going to football games Retrieval Cues – anchor points used to access target info for retrieval later Example: Mnemonics, words, events places , emotions, tastes, smells, that trigger memory Priming – unconscious activation of associations in memory Example: See a rabbit and asked to spell hair, you spell hare

45 Context Matters Context-dependent memory - memory is more easily recalled if you are in the same setting that learning took place Example: taking your AP exam in the same room and seat you learned the info Déjà vu – eerie sense that you’ve experienced something before Example: When I saw the play Billy Elliot I had déjà vu …

46 The Context Matters!!! Mood Congruent Memory – recalling memories consistent with current mood Example: When you break up with your girlfriend you think about all the other times you’ve been dumped State Dependent Memory – learning that takes place in one physiological "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar physiological state Example: info learned when person is drunk is better recalled when person is drunk

47 Forgetting Encoding Failures Storage Decay Retrieval Failures

48 Forgetting Schacter’s sevens sins of memory Sins of Forgetting
Absent-mindedness – encoding failure (inattention to detail) Transience – storage decay Blocking – inaccessibility to stored info Sins of distortion Misattribution – confusing the source Suggestibility – linger effects of misiformation Bias – belief colored recollections Sin of intrusion Persistence – unwanted memories

49 Encoding Failure Example – You can’t remember a person’s name that you were just introduced to because you weren’t paying attention What should you do to prevent an encoding failure?

50 Storage Decay Ebbinghaus Curve
Apply the Ebbinghaus curve to Psych Class

51 Retrieval Failure

52 Retrieval Failures Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information. Example: Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number. Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information. Example: Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name. PORN Positive Transfer – old info helps you learn new info Example: learning Spanish helps you learn French Tip of the tongue phenomenon - the feeling that a name, word, or phrase--though momentarily unrecallable--is known and will soon be recalled.

53 Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting – revising past memories
Example: Forgetting how much money I actually spent on Christmas shopping! Repression – (Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory) A defense mechanism that banishes painful memories from consciousness to minimize anxiety Example: Woman with unexplained fear of running water had repressed a memory of almost drowning

54 Constructive Memory Constructed memory (Loftus) - a created memory, altered when encoded or retrieved. 4 causes Misinformation effect Imagination effect Source amnesia Suggestibility

55 Constructive Memory Misinformation Effect – incorporating misleading info into a memory Example: Suggestibility – incorporating leading questions into memory (misrecalling a yield sign as a stop sign); hypnotically refreshed memories, Imagination Effect/Inflation – imagining nonexistent actions and events can create false memories imagining that Solon beat Mentor, you may create a false memory (: Source Amnesia – retaining the memory of an event, but not the source Example: Someone told you that Solon beat Mentor, but you think you read it in the newspaper Cognitive Interview Technique – witness visualizes scene, then recalls without interruption

56 Lotus Study Results: IV?
The wording of the questions Op Def? ½ participants will receive question stated as “How fast was Car A going when it ran the stop sign”, ½ will receive “how fast was Car A going when it turned right” DV? Answer to question Op Def Record the total number of responses that said they saw a stop sign” Results: Wording of questions can alter the way we remember an event Memories are not just replaying events, but rather new information (false presumptions) can be unintentionally integrated into a memory Repressed memories don’t exist, we tend to remember traumatic memories best

57 Discerning True and False Memories
Memory studies – real vs. false Real memories have more detail False memories often feel as real Hypnotically refreshed - misinformation effect Eye witness testimony Constructed memories Misinformation Source Amnesia Suggestability

58 Children’s Eyewitness Recall
Children’s memories of abuse Suggestibility – susceptibility to suggestion Children more susceptible than adults to the misinformation effect Children more credible if adults have not discussed the issue with them prior to an interview Ask less suggestive and more effective questions to reduce misinformation effect Use neutral words

59 Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?
Areas of agreement Sexual abuse happens Injustice happens Forgetting happens Recovered memories are incomplete Memories before 3 years are unreliable Hypnotic memories are unreliable Memories can be emotionally upsetting Happens more often than we once supposed…infants nervous systems are not fully formed making memory formation during infancy and toddlerhood difficult, if not impossible Some falsely accused; some evaded Some abused were either very young or may not have understood meaning of their experience—circumstance under which forgetting is common Cued by a remark or an experience we recover memories of long forgotten events both pleasant and unpleasant People do not reliably uncover memories from 1st 3 years Age regressed hypnotized subjects incorporate suggestions into memories Emotionally upsetting memories aren’t easily forgotten

60 Improving Memory Techniques
Study repeatedly Make the material meaningful Activate retrieval cues Use mnemonic devices Minimize interference Sleep more Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know

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