Presentation on theme: "7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language"— Presentation transcript:
1 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language Cognition7A – Memory7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language
2 MemoryMemory - the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.Examples:Sensory MemoryLong-term memoryShort-termWorking memoryImplicit/Procedural MemoryExplicit memoryEpisodic memorySemantic memoryFlashbulb memoryMood Congruent memoryContext Dependent MemoryProspective Memory
3 The Memory Process Basic three step process…. Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.Getting the info into the brainExample: Getting the names of the 7 dwarfs into your brainStorage: The retention of encoded material over time.Retaining the infoExample: Rehearsing the names of the dwarfs so that they are stored in memoryRetrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.Getting the info back outExample: Recalling or Recognizing the names of the dwarfs to get them back out of storage
4 3 Memory Models Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 stage model Modified Atkinson-ShiffrinConnectivism Model
5 Atkinson and Shiffrin’s 3 Step Model of Memory Sensory memory – brief recording of sensory informationExample: the sea of faces as you walk down the hallwayShort-term memory – memory that holds few items briefly before info is forgotten unless consciously activatedExample – a new phone number is remembered only long enough to dial itLong –term memory – relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory.Examples: Knowledge, skills, experiences (flashbulb)
6 Sensory MemorySensory Memory - A split second holding tank for ALL sensory informationExamples:.Iconic Memory – momentary sensory memory of visual stimuliEchoic Memory – momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
7 Short Term Memory Short –term memory consciously activated limited capacity –Holds items for about 30 seconds without rehearsalholds a few items briefly (7 digits +/-2) until it is forgotten or storedEncoded visually, acoustically or semantically through rehearsal.Short Term Memory Activity
8 Long Term MemoryLong-term memory - Unlimited storehouse of knowledge, skills and experiences.Unlimited capacityRelatively permanentOrganized and indexedExamples:Explicit (declarative) memories – (Facts)Implicit (non-declarative) memories (remembering how to do a task)
9 Modified Atkinson – Shiffrin modified (3 Stage) Model 2 New conceptsWorking Memory – active processing that combines novel (?) or important info along with info retrieved from long term memoryInstead of short-term memory being just a 20 sec. holding tank, this model includes the ability to briefly process infoSome info skips the 1st two stages in Atkinson’s/Shiffrins and is processed automatically into long-term memoryExample – Daydreaming in class
11 Connectionism Model of Memory Connectionism – theory that states that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neuronsMany neurons may work together to process a single memorymemory emerges from particular activation patterns within the networkretrieval of the memory is a reconstruction based on each of the elements of the pattern
12 On a piece of paper: Name the 3 memory models discussed today On a piece of paper: Name the 3 memory models discussed today. Which do you think is most useful in explaining memory? Why? Did you encode the info? Is it in storage, if not why not? Are you able to retrieve it?
13 Name the 3 memory models we discussed yesterday Pick 3 of the following terms and give an personal example of YOU using them:EncodingStorageRetrievalSensory MemoryShort-term MemoryLong-term MemoryWorking MemoryConnectionismName the 3 memory models we discussed yesterday
14 How We Encode 2 Ways of Encoding Automatically Processing ParallelEffortful processingRehearsal
15 Encoding - Automatic Processing Automatic Processing - unconscious encoding of incidental informationExamples: Unintentionally encoding…and later rememberingTime – day’s sequence of events, and remembering later you left your AP note cards on the lunch tablespace – place on a page in your AP textbook where the term automatic processing occurs..Frequency – number of times you saw your Mr. Gielink in the hallwell learned info – understand every word in your AP TextbookUnique or engaging info – “pop out” effect; things that stand out
16 Automatic ProcessingParallel Processing – processing of many things simultaneouslyAllows many sensory experiences to be encoded all at once, some automatically, some with effortExample: process a red car coming straight at you, you know to get out of the way!
17 Spring is the the most beautiful time of the year Automatic ProcessingSpring is the the most beautiful time of the year
18 Encoding – Effortful Processing Effortful Processing –encoding that requires conscious effort and attentionExample: Studying for your unit test on memoryRehearsal – conscious repetition of info to encode it for storageExample: Reviewing your AP note cards every night
19 Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve Ebbinghaus Curve - The amount remembered depends on the time spent learningUsed nonsense syllabus to study memoryJIH, BAZ, FUB, YOX SUJ, XIRThe more time you rehearse on day 1, the less time it takes to relearn the info on day 2Overlearning – additional rehearsal after we learn material increases retention
20 Effortful ProcessingSpacing effect – distributed study is better for long-term recall than massed study (cramming)DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!Example: Start studying now for your midterm—1/2 once per week!Testing effect – repeated quizzing or testing improves retentionExample: giving comprehensive quizzes every month, or even better, quizzing yourself repeatedly
21 Encoding InformationSerial Positioning Effect – we tend to remember the first and last items on a listPrimacy Effect – remember items at the beginning of a listExample: Washington, Adams..Recency Effect – remembering items at the end of a list (most recentExample: Obama, Bush…Rostorff effect – remembering unique items on a listExample: Lincoln, Kennedy
22 What We Encode…Encoding ExerciseVisual Encoding: the encoding of picture/visual images.Example – appearance of letters – are they in ALL CAPS, Bolded, In Red2. Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.Example: “If the glove doesn’t fit you must acquit”3. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.Example: “rambutan” may not mean anything to you – but if you put a meaning to it (a tropical fruit which means “hair” in Malaysian, similar to its physical qualities), you might remember itSerial Positioning Effects demonstrates the importance of rehearsal.
23 Visual EncodingEncoding ExerciseImagery – visual images help us remember concrete words (aided by semantic encoding)Example: Ipod, process, college, claimRosy Retrospection – recalling high points, forgetting the worstExample: After a trip to Disney World, you remember meeting Mickey, Space Mountain, the turkey leg you ate, but forget the long lines, and the heat
24 MneumonicsEncoding ExerciseMnemonic Devices – any memory aid that uses visual images and clever ways of organizing materialEXAMPLES:Peg word system – memorizing a jingle and using imagery to associate items with the jingleOne is a bun (chicken squashing the bun), two is a shoe (corn filling up shoe)…Method of Loci – use visual information with familiar objects on a path to recall info on a listExample: remembering items on a grocery list by associating them with a place in our house (chicken is pecking at front door, corn is smashed in the foyer etc)
25 MneumonicsEncoding Exercise3. Hierarchies – broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and factsExample: See picture4. Chunking - Organizing items into familiar, manageable units (acronyms)Example: PORN – Proactive Interference: Old info interferes with New Retroactive Interference: New interferes with OldEvery Good Boy Does Fine1-800-IBM-HELP
26 Acoustic Encoding Acoustic Encoding Example: The melody of your favorite song has been encoded into long-term memory
27 Semantic Encoding Semantic Encoding Examples: Children in Israel, can sing the top rock songs from the United States but they don’t know what the words mean. This is because they are using an acoustic code to remember a song and sing it, but they do not have a semantic code for the meaning of the words.Self Reference Effect – the tendency to remember information that is “relevant to me” compared to less personally relevant informationExample: I remember the meaning of rambutan because I was in Malaysia and ate them…yum!
28 Comparing Types of Encoding You’re given the word EXTROVERTED, which of the following is an example of Visual, Acoustic, Semantic Encoding?The word consists of 10 lettersThe word rhymes with pervertedThe word written in capitalsThe word describes you wellWhich would you remember better?Comparing Types of Encoding
29 Storage Types of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory/Short-term IconicEchoicWorking Memory/Short-termLong-Term MemoryImplicit Memory/Procedural MemoryConditioned MemoriesExplicit MemoryEpisodic MemorySemantic MemoryFlashbulb MemoriesProspective memory
30 Sensory Memory Sperling’s memory experiment Momentary photographic memoryAfter flashing an image, participants had a momentary mental image of all 9 lettersIconic memory – photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a secondA momentary mental image that remains after the image is goneExample:A momentary mental image that remains after seeing a phone number flashed on the TVThe afterimage of Twirling a sparkler
31 Sensory MemoryEchoic memory – auditory memory lasting no more than a 3-4 seconds (mind’s echo chamber)A momentary auditory impression that remains after the sound is goneExample: a moment after hearing your teacher say something when you weren’t paying, you are able to answer the question “What did I just say?”
32 Working/Short-Term Memory Duration – Brief (30 sec or less) without active processingSlightly better for auditory info than visual infoNumbers better than lettersCapacity - LimitedMagic number Seven5-9 bits of information, ave. = 7The list of magic sevensSeven wonders of worldSeven seasSeven deadly sinsSeven primary colorsSeven musical scale notesSeven days of the week
33 Types of Long Term Memory Implicit Memory/Procedural MemoryConditioned MemoriesExplicit MemoryEpisodic MemorySemantic MemoryFlashbulb MemoryProspective Memory
35 Implicit MemoriesImplicit/Procedural Memories – without conscious recallProcessed by cerebellum and other brain areasstill intact with anterograde amnesiaExamples:Bike Riding, Playing an instrumentConditioned Memories – memories from conditioned learningExample: Fear
36 Explicit MemoriesExplicit Memories – memories of facts and experiences, consciously recalledProcessed by the HippocampusVerbal information is stored in the left hippocampusvisual designs are stored in the right hippocampus.Infantile amnesia – can’t remember events before age 3Hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to developExample: Remembering the first President of the U.S.
37 Explicit MemoriesEpisodic Memories - memories of autobiographical events, situations, and experiencesExample: Remembering you 5th Birthday PartySemantic Memories – memory of words, meanings, and understandingsExample: Remembering the meaning of vocab from AP Psych
38 Explicit MemoriesFlashbulb Memories – clear moment of a emotionally significant eventFacilitated by stress hormonesProlonged stress however, can inhibit memory formation by shrinking the hippocampusAmygdala (emotion center of the brain) boosts activity & proteins into memory forming areas of the brainExample: 9/11Prospective Memory – remembering to perform a planned actionExample: Remembering to meet your study group for the AP Psych Exam
39 Review Come up with your own example of three of following terms: Iconic MemoryEchoic MemoryImplicit MemoryExplicit MemoryEpisodicSemanticFlashbulbProspective
40 Storing MemoriesMemory trace – memory is distributed across groups of neuronsLong Term-Potentiation – Increases in synaptic firing potential of a neuron by increasing the number of receptors on the receiving neuron.physical basis for learning and memory .Neurons that fire together wire together…creating a memory.Example: Rats given drug that enhances LTP learn a maze with about ½ the normal mistakesMemory boosting drugsCREB – proteins that make a cell more likely to keep a memoryGlutamate – enhances synaptic communication (LTP) which strengthens neural connections
41 Amnesia Amnesia – loss of memory Retrograde Amnesia – inability to remember past eventsExampleStroke, accident“The Vow”Anterograde Amnesia – inability to create new memoriesLoss of Explicit Memory but not Implicit memoriesExamples:Clive wearingHM (Henry Moliason)50 1st dates
42 Think Pair ShareExplain where explicit and implicit memories are stored in the brain, and the possible implications of these locations for amnesia victims.
43 Retrieval Recall - you must retrieve the information from your memory Example: fill-in-the blank or essay testsRecognition - you must identify the target from possible targetsExample: multiple-choice tests
44 Ways to help you retrieve info Relearning – learning material for the second time, saves time.Example: Taking Psych in college should save you time for going to football gamesRetrieval Cues – anchor points used to access target info for retrieval laterExample: Mnemonics, words, events places , emotions, tastes, smells, that trigger memoryPriming – unconscious activation of associations in memoryExample: See a rabbit and asked to spell hair, you spell hare
45 Context MattersContext-dependent memory - memory is more easily recalled if you are in the same setting that learning took placeExample: taking your AP exam in the same room and seat you learned the infoDéjà vu – eerie sense that you’ve experienced something beforeExample: When I saw the play Billy Elliot I had déjà vu …
46 The Context Matters!!!Mood Congruent Memory – recalling memories consistent with current moodExample: When you break up with your girlfriend you think about all the other times you’ve been dumpedState Dependent Memory – learning that takes place in one physiological "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar physiological stateExample: info learned when person is drunk is better recalled when person is drunk
48 Forgetting Schacter’s sevens sins of memory Sins of Forgetting Absent-mindedness – encoding failure (inattention to detail)Transience – storage decayBlocking – inaccessibility to stored infoSins of distortionMisattribution – confusing the sourceSuggestibility – linger effects of misiformationBias – belief colored recollectionsSin of intrusionPersistence – unwanted memories
49 Encoding FailureExample – You can’t remember a person’s name that you were just introduced to because you weren’t paying attentionWhat should you do to prevent an encoding failure?
50 Storage Decay Ebbinghaus Curve Apply the Ebbinghaus curve to Psych Class
52 Retrieval FailuresRetroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.Example: Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number.Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.Example: Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.PORNPositive Transfer – old info helps you learn new infoExample: learning Spanish helps you learn FrenchTip of the tongue phenomenon - the feeling that a name, word, or phrase--though momentarily unrecallable--is known and will soon be recalled.
53 Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting – revising past memories Example: Forgetting how much money I actually spent on Christmas shopping!Repression – (Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory)A defense mechanism that banishes painful memories from consciousness to minimize anxietyExample: Woman with unexplained fear of running water had repressed a memory of almost drowning
54 Constructive MemoryConstructed memory (Loftus) - a created memory, altered when encoded or retrieved.4 causesMisinformation effectImagination effectSource amnesiaSuggestibility
55 Constructive MemoryMisinformation Effect – incorporating misleading info into a memoryExample:Suggestibility – incorporating leading questions into memory (misrecalling a yield sign as a stop sign); hypnotically refreshed memories,Imagination Effect/Inflation – imagining nonexistent actions and events can create false memoriesimagining that Solon beat Mentor, you may create a false memory (:Source Amnesia – retaining the memory of an event, but not the sourceExample: Someone told you that Solon beat Mentor, but you think you read it in the newspaperCognitive Interview Technique – witness visualizes scene, then recalls without interruption
56 Lotus Study Results: IV? The wording of the questionsOp Def?½ participants will receive question stated as “How fast was Car A going when it ran the stop sign”, ½ will receive “how fast was Car A going when it turned right”DV?Answer to questionOp DefRecord the total number of responses that said they saw a stop sign”Results:Wording of questions can alter the way we remember an eventMemories are not just replaying events, but rather new information (false presumptions) can be unintentionally integrated into a memoryRepressed memories don’t exist, we tend to remember traumatic memories best
57 Discerning True and False Memories Memory studies – real vs. falseReal memories have more detailFalse memories often feel as realHypnotically refreshed - misinformation effectEye witness testimonyConstructed memoriesMisinformationSource AmnesiaSuggestability
58 Children’s Eyewitness Recall Children’s memories of abuseSuggestibility – susceptibility to suggestionChildren more susceptible than adults to the misinformation effectChildren more credible if adults have not discussed the issue with them prior to an interviewAsk less suggestive and more effective questions to reduce misinformation effectUse neutral words
59 Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse? Areas of agreementSexual abuse happensInjustice happensForgetting happensRecovered memories are incompleteMemories before 3 years are unreliableHypnotic memories are unreliableMemories can be emotionally upsettingHappens more often than we once supposed…infants nervous systems are not fully formed making memory formation during infancy and toddlerhood difficult, if not impossibleSome falsely accused; some evadedSome abused were either very young or may not have understood meaning of their experience—circumstance under which forgetting is commonCued by a remark or an experience we recover memories of long forgotten events both pleasant and unpleasantPeople do not reliably uncover memories from 1st 3 yearsAge regressed hypnotized subjects incorporate suggestions into memoriesEmotionally upsetting memories aren’t easily forgotten
60 Improving Memory Techniques Study repeatedlyMake the material meaningfulActivate retrieval cuesUse mnemonic devicesMinimize interferenceSleep moreTest your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know